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CBSE Solutions Class 10 Social Science Economics Development
Page No. 16
Q1. Development of a country can generally be determined by
(i) its per capita income
(ii) its average literacy level
(iii) health status of its people
(iv) all the above
Answer: (iv) all the above
Q2. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
(ii) Sri Lanka
Answer: (ii) Sri Lanka
Q3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs 5000. If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(i) Rs 7500
(ii) Rs 3000
(iii) Rs 2000
(iv) Rs 6000
Answer: (iv) Rs 6000
Q4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
Answer: The main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries:
Countries with per capita income of US$ 12616 per annum and above in 2012, are called rich countries and those with per capita income of US$ 1035 or less are called low-income countries. India comes in the category of low middle income countries because its per capita income in 2012 was just US$ 1530 per annum. The rich countries, excluding countries of Middle East and certain other small countries, are generally called developed countries.
Limitations of this criterion are that while average income is useful for competition, it does not tell us how this income is distributed among people. A country may have more equitable distribution. People may be neither very rich nor extremely poor. But in another country with same average income, one person may be extremely rich, while others may be very poor. So, the method of average income does not give correct picture of a country.
This criterion hides disparities among people.
Q5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
Answer: The World Bank uses per capita income as the most important criterion for development. If we go into the depth, we will find that the level of income is not an adequate measure of the level of development. UNDP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income. Thus, UNDP gives much importance to those factors which help in improving the quality of life and in making the citizens more capable and productive.
Q6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
Answer: We use averages because they are useful for comparing differing quantities of the same category. For example, to compute the per capita income of a country, averages have to be used because there are differences in the incomes of diverse people.
However, there are limitations to the use of averages. Even though they are useful for comparison, they may also hide disparities. For example, the infant mortality rate of a country does not differentiate between the male and female infants born in that country. Such an average tells us nothing about whether the number of children dying before the age of one are mostly boys or mostly girls.
Q7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
Answer: No, I do not agree with the statement that per capita income is not a useful criterion at all. Kerala, with lower per capita income, has a better human development ranking than Punjab because, human development ranking is determined using a combination of factors such as health, education, and income. So, this does not imply that per capita income is not useful. Rather, per capita income is one of the development factors and can not be neglected. The World Bank uses per capita income as the criterion for measuring development and comparing states. But this criterion has certain limitations because of which determination of Human Development Index (HDI) is done using this criterion along with some other development factors like health, education etc.
Q8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?
Answer: The present sources of energy that are used by the people of India are electricity, coal, crude oil, cowdung and solar energy. Other possibilities fifty years from now, could include ethanol, bio-diesel, nuclear energy and a better utilisation of wind energy, especially with the imminent danger of oil resources running out.
Q9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
Answer: Sustainable development refers to using natural resources in a manner so that they can be used by the present and future generations. The issue of sustainability is important for development because if the natural resources are not used carefully, they may not be available for future generations. The depleting resources of a country may ultimately result in a lack of development of the country.
Q10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
Answer: This famous quote from Mahatma Gandhi shows his concern about resource conservation. What he meant to say is that our earth has no dearth of resources but they should be used judiciously and not exploited over a few years. Our greedy attitude would push our future generations into perils. So, we need to think about and stop overusing resources. We should control our greed and take as little from the nature as is really essential for us. Such an attitude will not only save us from dangers but also the generations to come.
Q11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Answer: Environmental degradation manifests itself in different ways. Deforestation, falling levels of groundwater, soil erosion, water pollution, burning of fossil fuels, the hole in the ozone layer and combustion from automobiles causing extreme air pollution especially in urban areas are some of the examples of environmental degradation.
Q12. For each of the items given in Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.
Answer: As per table 1.6, Sri Lanka tops in all the four categories. It has the highest Gross National Income, Life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling of people aged 25 and above and HDI rank in the world. Nepal has the lowest Gross National Income among the given countries. Pakistan has the least Life Expectancy at birth and ranks the lowest HDI rank in the world among the given countries. Mean years of schooling of people aged 25 and above is the lowest for Myanmar and Nepal.
Q13. The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions.
(i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
Answer: The nutritional level of people of Kerala is quite higher than the people – both males and females of Madhya Pradesh. Their ratio of the under-nourished is less than that of Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) Can you guess why around 40 per cent of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.
Answer: One-fifth of the population in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country because of the following reasons:
- The disparity in the distribution of food grains by Public Distribution System (PDS).
- Nutritious food cannot be afforded by the poor population in the country.
- Educational backwardness of people results in unemployment because of which people cannot afford the basic necessity of food.
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