We have completed the NCERT/CBSE Solutions chapter-wise for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 7 Directing with Answers by expert subject teacher for latest syllabus and examination. Prepare effectively for the exam taking the help of the Class 12 Business Studies NCERT Solutions PDF free of cost from here. Students also can take a free NCERT Solutions of Directing. Each question has right answer Solved by Expert Teacher. Download the Business Studies NCERT Solutions with Answers for Class 12 Business Studies Pdf and prepare to help students understand the concept very well.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter wise
Very Short Answer Type:
Q1. What is informal communication?
Answer: Informal communication is often verbal or gestural and hence lacks the maintenance of proves. This type of communication is the result of social interaction and satisfies social needs. Such informal paths are referred to as ‘grapevine’.
Q2. Which style of leadership does not believe in use of power unless it is absolutely essential?
Answer: Laissez-Faire which is also known as the free reign leadership is that kind of leadership that believes that power should be used only when it is essential. In such a type of leadership subordinated are given the full authority. They are allowed to have maximum freedom to take decisions.
Q3. Which element in the communication process involves converting the message into words, symbols, gestures etc.?
Answer: Encoding is the step in the communication process that involves converting the message into words, symbols, gestures, and so on.
Q4. The workers always try to show their inability when any new work is given to them. They are always unwilling to take up any kind of work. Due to sudden rise in demand a firm wants to meet excess orders. The supervisor is finding it difficult to cope up with the situation. State the element of directing that can help the supervisor in handling the problem.
Answer: The employees in this situation should be provided motivation. Supervisor should be proactively motivating the employees and help them in performing to their best of abilities. The supervisor should also be able to understand the requirements and needs of the workers. Managers must be able to identify the reason behind the workers not showing the willingness to work and put all efforts in solving that issue. Managers can also provide monetary benefits in form of incentives to workers to keep them motivated.
Short Answer Type:
Q1. What are semantic barriers of communication?
Answer: Communication problems arising due to use of faulty translation form part of semantic barriers. Semantic barriers are concerned with problems and obstructions in the process of encoding and decoding of message into words or impressions. Normally, such barriers result on account of use of wrong words, faulty translation, different interpretations, etc.
Q2. Explain the process of motivation with the help of a diagram.
Q3. State the different networks of grapevine communication?
Q4. Explain any three principles of Directing?
Answer: Principles of Directing
(i) Harmony of Objectives Most of the time it happens that the organisational objectives and individual objectives move in opposite directions. The person in charge of a team of workers should guide and instruct his team in such a manner that they realise the importance of both the objectives
(ii) Unity of Command This principle insists that a person in the organisation should receive instructions from one superior only. If instructions are received from more than one, it creates confusion, conflict and disorder in the organisation. Adherence to this principle ensures effective direction.
(iii) Managerial Communication Directing should convey clear instructions to create total understanding to subordinates. Through proper feed back the manager should ensure that subordinate understands his instructions clearly.
Q5. In an organisation, one of the departmental managers is inflexible and once he takes a decision, he does not like to be contradicted. As a result, employees always feel they are under stress and they take least initiative and fear to express their opinions and problems before the manager. What is the problem in the way authority is being used by the manager?
Answer: The manager is an autocratic leader.
An autocratic leader gives orders and expects others to obey them. The decision-making power is centralized. Due to the inflexibility of the leader, employees feel demotivated and discouraged due to the leader’s unwillingness to take their suggestions, and the productivity is also impacted due to demotivated employees.
To solve this issue, the manager needs to be a little flexible, and foster positive communication with its employees, as well as welcome suggestions from them.
Q6. A reputed hostel, GyanPradan provides medical aid and free education to children of its employees. Which incentive is being highlighted here? State its category and name any two more incentives of the same category.
Answer: The incentive that GyanPradan is providing its employees in the form of medical aid and free education to children is called as Financial Incentive. Two other types of financial incentives are:
- Bonus: This could be in the form of benefits that are apart from salary and it can be provided in the form of festival bonus or yearly bonus.
- Retirement benefits: Employee benefits in the form of pensions, provident funds and gratuity etc can be offered to employees.
Long Answer Type:
Q1. Explain the qualities of a good leader? Do the qualities alone ensure leadership success?
Answer: Leadership may be defined as the art of influencing the people so that they will strive willingly towards the realisation of common goals. In other words, leadership refers to the equality of the behaviour of the individuals whereby they guide people and their activities in organised efforts.
The qualities of a good leader are:
A good leader should have knowledge and competence so that he can easily instruct his subordinates.
A leader should possess high level of integrity and honesty to be a role model to others regarding the ethics and value.
A leader should be an effective motivator. He should understand the needs of people and motivate them through satisfying their needs.
Q2. Discuss Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory of motivation.
Answer: Hierarchy Of Needs
Needs are the stating point in motivation. If the needs of the workers are identified and satisfied, they will feel happy and show higher productivity. The workers contribute their maximum to the organisational goals if their needs are satisfied. However, the needs of people are large in number as shown in fig. and some of the needs are more, complex than others. So it is not easy to satisfy all the management to satisfy the basic needs of workers such as food,clothing
and shelter. But the satisfaction of psychological needs of workers is a difficult job.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow, an eminent US psychologist, offered a general theory of motivation, called the ‘Need hierarchy theory.’ He felt that people have a wide range of needs which motivate them to strive for their fulfilment. As shown in fig., human needs can be categorised into five types : physiological needs, security needs, social needs, esteem needs and self actuaiisation needs.
Various types of human needs are discussed below :
- Physiological Needs : These needs relate to the survival and maintenance of human life. They include such things as food, clothing, shelter, air, water and other necessities of life.
- Security Needs : These needs are also important for most of the people. Everybody wants job security, protection against dangers, safety of property, etc.
- Social of Affiliation Needs : Man is a social being. He is, therefore, interested in conversation, sociability, exchange of feelings, companionship, recognition, belongingness, etc.
Q3. What are the common barriers to effective communication? Suggest measures to overcome them.
Answer: Common Barriers to Effective Communication Managers in all organisations face problems due to communication barriers. These barriers may prevent a communication or filter part of it or carry incorrect meaning due to which misunderstanding may be created. Therefore all managers should take some steps to overcome these barriers.
There are broadly four groups of barriers
(i) Semantic Barriers Semantic barriers are concerned with problems and obstructions in the process of encoding and decoding of message into words or impressions. Normally, such barriers result on account of use of wrong words, faulty translations, different interpretations etc. These are discussed below
(a) Badly Expressed Message Sometimes the message is not communicated correctly by the manager because of inadequate vocabulary, usage of wrong words, omission of needed words etc.
(b) Symbols with Different Meaning A word may have several meanings. Receiver has to perceive one such meaning for the word used by communicator.
(c) Faulty Translations Sometimes while translating if incorrect translation is done due to poor command over both the languages then meaning of the message changes. This leads to cause different meanings to the communications.
(d) Unclarified Assumptions Sometimes communication may have certain assumptions which are subject to different interpretations The one should always clear the meaning of what he is instructing the worker to do, so that the worker has no doubts in his mind.
(ii) Psychological Barriers
Emotional or psychological factors acts as barrier to communications e.g., a person who is worried cannot understand what is being told. Some of the psychological barriers are
(a) Premature Evaluation Sometimes people evaluate the meaning of message before the sender completes his message. Such premature evaluation may be due to pre-conceived notions.
(b) Lack of Attention If the mind is pre-occupied then the result is non-listening of message by receiver act as a major psychological barrier.
(c) Lon by Transmission and Poor Retention When message passes through various levels, successive transmission of message results in loss of information. It happenes mostly with oral communication. Also people cannot retain the information for a long time if they are inattentive or not interested.
(d) Distrust If the communicator and communicatee do not believe on each other, they can not understand each others message in its original sense as they are not giving importance to the information exchanged.
(iii) Organisational Barriers The factors related to organisation structure, authority relationships, rules and regulations may sometimes act as barriers to effective communication some of these barriers are
(a) Organisational Policy If the organisational policy is not supportive to free flow of communication, it may hamper effectiveness of communications.
(b) Rules and Regulations Rigid rules and cumbersome procedures may be a hurdle to communication similarly, communication through prescribed channel may result in delays.
(c) Status Status of superior may create psychological distance between him and his subordinates. The people working at higher level may not allow his subordinates to express their feelings freely.
(d) Complex Organisational Structure In an organisation where there are number of managerial levels, communications gets delayed and distorted as number of filtering points are more.
Q4. Explain different financial and non-financial incentives used to motivate employees of a company?
Answer: Financial incentives are direct monetary incentives given to employees in order to motivate or reward them for better performance. Some of the financial incentives used in organizations are as follows.
- Salary and Allowances: The basic form of financial incentive in any organization is salary and allowances given to employees. Employees are motivated when their salaries are raised on a regular basis and they are given allowances.
- Performance-Based Incentives: Organizations frequently offer monetary rewards for high performance. This motivates employees to improve their efficiency and performance.
- Bonus: A bonus is an additional reward given in addition to the basic salary. It can take the form of money, gifts, paid vacations, and so on. Some organizations, for example, offer bonuses during festival seasons, such as the Diwali bonus.
- Stock Option: Under this incentive scheme, the employee is offered company shares at a lower price than the market price. This instills a sense of ownership and belonging in the employee and encourages him to contribute to the organization’s goals.
- Profit Sharing: In this case, the organization shares a portion of its profits with its employees. This encourages employees to actively contribute to the organization’s growth.
Q5. In an organisation all the employees take things easy and are free to approach anyone for minor queries and problems. This has resulted in everyone talking to each other and thus resulting in inefficiency in the office. It has also resulted in loss of secrecy and confidential information being leaked out. What system do you think the manager should adopt to improve communication?
Answer: In the current situation the system of communication that is followed is informal. The need of the company is to shift to a formal communication system. In such a system the messages and facts will follow an officially designated channel. Therefore, the information flow would be systematic and in correct order. It is easier to locate the original source of communication in such a method.
NCERT Solution for Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 7 -Directing furnishes us with a comprehensive introduction to the concepts. It provides a clear picture of what is Directing an organisation. Concepts covered in this chapter –
- Meaning of directing
- Characteristics of directing
- Importance of directing
- Principles of directing
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