# Geography Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 3 Population Composition

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### Q1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

#### (i) Which one of the following has caused the sex ratio of the United Arab Emirates to be low?

(a) Selective migration of male working population
(b) High birth rate of males
(c) Low birth rate of females
(d) High out migration of females

Answer:- (a) Selective migration of male working population

#### (ii) Which one of the following figures represents the working age group of the population?

(a) 15 to 65 years
(b) 15 to 64 years
(c) 15 to 66 years
(d) 15 to 59 years

Answer:- (d) 15 to 59 years

#### (iii) Which one of the following countries has the highest sex ratio in the world?

(a) Latvia
(b) United Arab Emirates
(c) Japan
(d) France

#### (i) What do you understand by population composition?

Answer:- (i) Each nation is known for its diverse population. The people living at a particular place are classified on the basis of age, sex or the place of residing. The process of identifying the population of an area on the basis of different rates such as growth, distribution, etc. is termed as population composition.

#### (ii) What is the significance of age-structure?

Answer:- Age structure represents the number of people of different age groups. This is an important indicator of population composition, since a large size of population in the age group of 15-59 indicates a large working population. A greater proportion of population above 60 years represents an ageing population which requires more expenditure on health care facilities. Similarly high proportion of young population would mean that the region has a high birth rate and the population is youthful.

#### (iii) How is sex-ratio measured?

Answer:- (iii) Across the globe, sex ratio is measured on the basis of no of males per thousand females in population. In India, it is measured as no of females per thousand male in a population.
following formula : Sex Ratio = Female population /Male population ×1000.

### Q3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words.

#### (i) Describe the rural-urban composition of the population.

Answer:- On the basis of the residence, the population is divided into two groups
(a) Rural population
(b) Urban population.

Comparison. These two groups differ from each other in the following ways :
Life style, Livelihood, Social conditions
Density of population, Level of development.
(a) Rural areas are those where people are engaged in Primary activities.
(b) Urban areas are those where majority of the working population is engaged in non-primary activities.

Differences

In western countries, males outnumber females in rural areas
Females outnumber males in urban areas
In developing countries, females outnumber males in Rural areas and males outnumber females in urban areas.

Reasons
The excess of females in urban areas is the result of influx of females from rural areas for jobs.
Farming is dominated by males in rural areas.
Females participate in farming in rural areas in large number in developing countries.
Women are discouraged to migrate to urban areas due to high cost of living and lack of security.

#### (ii) Discuss the factors responsible for imbalances in the sex-age found in different parts of the world and occupational structure.

Answer:- There are several factors responsible for imbalance in sex-age group found in different parts
of world and occupational structure. The working population which belongs to the age-group of 15-59 takes part in occupation of different types. It could be fishing, agriculture, communication, transportation and other unclassified services.
The work force indicates level of development especially social and economic development. It is so because a developed economy with infrastructure and industry is capable of accommodating more workers in secondary, quaternary and tertiary sector. If an economy is in its primitive stage, the percentage of people involved in primary occupation would be high as it is about extracting natural resources.

A country’s age structure also indicates the level of development. A large working population depicts how progressive a country is. A large dependent population with children and retired persons indicates economy of that country is burdened. Due to that, its development process slows down. A large percentage of women in secondary, tertiary and quaternary sector indicates progressive nation.

### Extra Questions of Population Composition

#### Very Short Type Questions Answers

##### Q1. Which country has the highest sex ratio in the world?

Answer:- Latvia with 85 males per 100 females has the highest sex ratio in the world.

#### Q2. Name the country with lowest sex ratio in the world.

Answer:- Qatar has the lowest sex ratio with 311 males per 100 females

#### Q3. What does age-sex pyramid defines?

Answer:- The age-sex structure of a population refers to the number of males and females in different age groups. Population
pyramid is used to show age-sex structure of the population.

### Explain the flowing the question.

#### Q1. How does sex ratio give important information about status of women in a country?

Answer:- In regions where gender discrimination is rampant, the sex ratio is bound to be unfavorable to women. Such areas are those where the practice of female feticides, female infanticide and domestic violence against women are prevalent. One of the reasons could be lower social-economic status of women in these areas. You must remember that more women in the population does not mean they have a better status. It could be that the men might have migrated to other areas for employment.

#### Q2. How is occupational structure a good indicator of levels of economic development of a nation?

Answer:- The working population (i.e. women and men of the age group – 15 to 59) take part in various occupations ranging from agriculture, forestry, fishing, manufacturing construction, commercial transport, services, communication and other unclassified services. Agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining are classified as primary activities manufacturing as secondary, transport, communication and other services as tertiary and the jobs related to research and developing ideas as quaternary activities.
The proportion of working population engaged in these four sectors is a good indicator of the levels of economic development of a nation. This is because only a developed economy with industries and infrastructure can accommodate more workers in the secondary, tertiary and quaternary sector. If the economy is still in the primitive stages, then the proportion of people engaged in primary activities world be high as it involves extraction of natural resources.