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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter wise
Q1. Trace out the changes that have been occurring in the newspaper industry? What is your opinion on these changes?
- The Indian language newspapers have adopted advanced printing technologies and also attempted supplements, pullouts, and literary and niche booklets.
- Marketing strategies have also marked the Dainik Bhaskar group’s growth as they carry out consumer contact programmes, door-to-door surveys, and research.
- While English newspapers, often called ‘national dailies’, circulate across regions, vernacular newspapers have vastly increased their circulation in the states and the rural hinterland.
- In order to compete with the electronic media, newspapers, especially English language newspapers have on the one hand reduced prices and on the other hand brought out editions from multiple centres.
- Many feared that the rise in electronic media would lead to a decline in the circulation of print media. This has not happened. Indeed it has expanded. This process has, however, often involved cuts in prices and increasing dependence on the sponsors of advertisements who in turn have a larger say in the content of newspapers.
- It is often believed that with the growth of the television and the internet the print media would be sidelined. However, in India we have seen the circulation of newspapers grow. A large number of glossy magazines have also made their entry into the market.
- There is a rise in the number of literate people who are migrating to cities. The Hindi daily Hindustan in 2003 printed 64,000 copies of their Delhi edition, which jumped to 425,000 by 2005. The reason was that, of Delhi’s population of one crore and forty-seven lakhs, 52 per cent had come from the Hindi belt of the two states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Out of this, 47 per cent have come from a rural background and 60 per cent of them are less than 40 years of age.
- The needs of the readers in the small towns and villages are different from that of the cities and the Indian language newspapers cater to those needs. Dominant Indian language newspapers such as Malayala Manorama and the Eenadu launched the concept of local news in a significant manner by introducing district and whenever necessary, block editions.
Q2. Is radio as a medium of mass communication dying out? Discuss the potential that FM stations have in post-liberalisation India?
- With the advent of TV, internet and other audio visual forms of entertainment, people started believing that radio will bean outdated form of mass communication but this thinking proved wrong.
- In 2000, AIR’s programmes could be heard in two-third of Indian household in 24 languages and 146 dialects, over some 120 million radio sets. The advent of privately owned FM radio stations in 2002 provided a boost to entertainment over radio. –
- In order to attract audiences, these privately run radio stations sought to provide entertainment to its listeners.
- As privately rim FM channels are not permitted to broadcast any political news bulletins, many of these channels specialize in ‘particular kinds’ of popular music to retain their audiences. One such FM channel claims that it broadcasts ‘All hits all day’.
- Most FM channels which are popular among young urban professional and students often belong to media conglomerates. Like ‘Radio Mirchi’ belongs to the Times of India group, Red FM is owned by Living Media and Radio City by the Star Network. But independent radio stations engaged in public broadcasting like National Public Radio (USA) or BBC (UK) are missing from our broadcasting landscape.
- The use of radio m movies—In the two films ‘Rang de Basanti’ and ‘Lage Raho Munna Bhai’ the radio is used as an active medium of communication although both the movies are set in the contemporary period. In ‘Rang de Basanti’ die conscientious, angry college youth, inspired by the Legend of Bhagat Singh assassinates a minister and then captures All India Radio to reach out to die people and disseminate their message.
- The potential for using FM channels is enormous. Further privatization of radio stations and the emergence of community owned radio stations would lead to the growth of radio stations. The demand for local news is growing. The number of homes listening to FM in India has also reinforced the worldwide trend of networks getting replaced by local radio.
Q3. Trace the changes that have been happening in the medium of television. Discuss.
Answer: Doordarshan (Television): First television in India was started in ‘Aakashvani Bhavan’ in 1959 as an experiment. Service of Doordarshan, which is being provided by the Indian government, is one of the largest service of mass media in the world. In its earlier phase, it was being broadcast thrice a week. But later on, it started to broadcast its programmes daily. First satellite experiment in India was carried out in 1975-76.
It was the first step to give social education with the help of technology. The second television centre, in the country opened in 1972. Many other centres started in 1973 in the country. In 1976, Doordarshan was separated from AIR and was made a new department. Colour television was started in 1982 dining the Asian Games at Delhi. D.D. Metro was combined with Delhi Doordarshan in 1984. Initially D.D. Metro was broadcast in Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras but later on the telecast spread to the whole country. D.D. sports, a sports channel was started in 1999 to telecast different sporting events on television.
Now television is available with more than 100 crore people in the country. 87% population is within the reach of television and television covers 78% area of the country. Doordarshan has production studios in 49 cities of the country. Doordarshan telecasts many educational and entertainment programmes. Doordarshan runs many educational programmes with the help of U.G.C. and IGNOU.
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