The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth NCERT solutions chapter 2 class 12 offers you best answers for the Distribution, Density and Growth Chapter 2. This chapter designed by expert’s subject teachers to prepare students to score well. Here you find question wise complete detailed chapter questions and answers.

Q1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

(i) Which one of the following continents has the highest growth of population?

(a) Africa
(b) South America
(c) Asia
(d) North America

Answer: (a) Africa

(ii) Which one of the following is not an area of sparse population?

(a) The Atacama
(b) Equatorial region
(c) South-east Asia
(d) Polar regions

Answer: (c) South-east Asia

(iii) Which one of the following is not a push factor?

(a) Water shortage
(b) Medical/educational facilities
(c) Unemployment
(d) Epidemics

Answer: (d) Epidemics

(iv) Which one of the following is not a fact?

(a) Human population increased more than ten times during the past 500 years.
(b) It took 100 years for the population to rise from 5 billion to 6 billion
(c) Population growth is high in the first stage of demographic transition.

Answer: (c) Population growth is high in the first stage of demographic transition.

Q2. Answer the following question in about 30 words.

(i) Name three geographical factors that influence the distribution of population.

Answer:- (a) Availability of Water: River valleys are densely populated areas of the world.
(b) Landforms. Mountains and plateaus are sparsely populated areas but plains are densely populated.
(c) Climate. Deserts and cold polar areas are sparsely populated, but temperate region is densely populated.

(ii) There are a number of areas of high population density in the world. Why does this happen?

Answer:- The areas with high population density across the world have at least one or usually multiple factors favorable for the settlement of population. Wherever people found conducive conditions for living, they have been settling there. With passage of time and growth of population, these areas became regions of thick population density. For example, the regions with availability of water, good climate, presence of minerals and other resources, of religious or cultural significance became regions of thick population. Example: Ganga-Yamuna Doab, Mediterranean regions.

(iii) What are the three components of population change?

Answer:- The three components of population change are:

Birth Rate (BR): It is expressed as number of live births in a year per thousand of population in a particular region. Crude birth rate = Live Births/ Mid year Population × 100.

Death Rate (DR): It is the number of deaths in a place per thousand of population in a particular region. BR and DR are natural factors of population growth. They result in natural population growth, which is equal to the difference between BR and DR. Crude Death rate = Number of deaths / Mid year Population ×100.

Migration: It is the induced factor in population growth. It is the number of people moving in and out of a place due to various social, economic and political reasons. It is taken into account while calculating actual growth of population.

Q3. . Distinguish between:

(i) Birth rate and death rate.

Answer:- Birth Rate

  1. The number of live births per thousand persons during a certain period of time is called birth rate.
  2. It is calculated for every 1000 persons for a year.
  3. A high birth rate shows an increasing population.

Death Rate

  1. It is the number of deaths per 1000 persons during a certain period.
  2. It is calculated for every 1000 persons per year.
  3. When death rate is higher than birth rate, it shows a declining population.

(ii) Push factors and pull factors of migration.

Answer:- Push factors

  1. Push factors compel people to leave place of origin. Just as people from rural areas are pushed out to big cities.
  2. Factors like un- employment, poor living conditions, political turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural disasters, epidemics and socio-economic back-wardness are push factors.

Pull factors

  1. Pull factors make the place of destination more attractive.
  2. Better job opportunities, better living conditions, peace and stability, security of life and pleasant climate are pull factors.

Q4.Answer the following questions in about 150 words

(i) Discuss the factors influencing the distribution and density of population in the world.

Answer:- The factors are grouped into three categories:

(a) Geographical Factor-

Availability of water: People prefer to live in areas which fresh water is easily available for drinking, and for cattle, crops, industries and navigation.

Landforms: People prefer living on flat plains and gentle slopes rather than on mountainous and hilly areas. This is because plain areas are favourable for the production of crops and to build roads and industries.
Whereas, the mountainous and hilly areas are unfavourable for the development of transport network, agriculture and industries.

Climate: Areas with a comfortable climate, where there is not much seasonal variation have high population.
Whereas, extreme climates such as very hot or cold, deserts and heavy rainfall are uncomfortable for human living and have low population.

Soil: Pertile soils are important for agricultural and related activities activities. Therefore, areas which have fertile loamy soils have more people living on them as these can support intensive agriculture.

(b) Economic Factors-

Minerals: Areas with rich mineral deposits attract mining and industrial activities. Therefore, skilled and semi-skilled workers move to these areas for employment and make them densely populated.

Urbanisation: People migrate in the cities for better employment opportunities, educational and medical facilities, and better means of transport and communication and good civic amenities.
Mega cities of the world continue to attract a large number of migrants every year.

Industrialization: Industrial belts provide job opportunities and attract a large number of people. These include not just factory workers but also transport operators, shopkeepers, bank employees, doctors, teachers and other service providers.

(c) Social and Cultural Factors-

Religious: Some places attract more people because they have religious or cultural significance.

Political unrest and wars: In the same way, people tend to move away from places where there is social and political unrest.

Government policies: Many time governments offer incentive to people to live in sparsely populated areas of demographic transition.

(ii) Discuss the three stages of demographic transition.

Answer:- The First Stage This stage is marked by high fertility and high mortality. The death rate is also high due to epidemics and variable food supply. Therefore, the population growth is slow and life expectancy is low. People are mostly illiterate and engaged in agriculture due to which large families are preferred. Level of technology is also low.

Second Stage In this stage, the expansion of population remains high because the death rate reduces due to the improvement in sanitation and health conditions but the fertility rate remains high. Though at the later stage it declines with time. The mortality rate also decreases. The net addition to a population in this stage is high.

The third Stage In the last stage, both fertility and mortality declines considerably and population either stabilizes or grows slowly. The family size is deliberately controlled as the population becomes urbanized and literate. There is a high level of technical know-how in this stage. High technical knowledge contributes deliberately in controlling the family size.

  Map Skill

Q1.  On the outline map of the world, show and name the following.

(i) Countries of Europe and Asia with negative growth rate of population.

Answer:-  Europe: Estonia, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria etc. Asia : Japan, Armenia, Angola, Niger, Guinea,

Q2.  African countries with growth rate of population more than three per cent.

Answer:- Europe: Estonia, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria etc. Asia : Japan, Armenia, Angola, Niger, Guinea,

Extra Questions of Chapter 2 The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth


Q1. Give two geographical factors that influence the distribution of population.

Answer:-  Three geographical factors that influenced on the distribution of population are:

(i) Landforms

(ii) Climate

(iii) Soils.

Q2. What are the three components of population change?

Answer:-  The three components of population change are :

(a) Birth

(b) Deaths

(c) Migration (in-migration and out-migration)

Q3. How much population has the world recorded at the beginning of the 21″ century”?

Answer:- At the beginning of the 21st century, the world has recorded the presence of over 600 crore population.

Q4. How are the people of a country its real wealth?

Answer:-  The people of a country its real wealth are :

(i) The people of a country are its real wealth.

(ii) They make use of the country’s resources and decide its policies.

(iii) Ultimately the country is known by its people.

Q5. What do you mean by Density of population?

Answer :- Number of people living per unit area (per square kilometer of area) is called Density of Population.

Example : India has 324 people per square kilometre of area as density of population (2001).

Q6. What do you understand by Negative growth of Population?

Ans :-  If the population decreases between two points of time it is known as negative growth of population. It occurs when the birth rate falls below the death rate or people migrate to other countries.


Q1. What are the pull and push factors of reintegration?

Answer:-  Push Factors :

(i) Push factors of those factors by which people move outwards from the place of their origin.

(ii) Natural Calamities like, floods, droughts, epidemics, unpleasant climate, poor living conditions are the examples of push factors of population migration.

Pull factors :

(i) Pull factors of population migration are those which cause people to come from outside places.

(ii) Fertile soil, job opportunities, peace and stability, pleasant climate, better living conditions etc., are some examples of pull factors of population migration.

Q2. Explain the impact of population change.

Answer :- Impact of population change :

(i) A small increase in population is desirable in a growing economy.

(ii) Population growth beyond a certain level leads to problems.

(iii) The problems are enumerated below:

(a) of these the depletion of resources is the most serious.

(b) Resources that had supported a population earlier are now insufficient to maintain the population.

Fundamentals of Human Geography

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