NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Secondary Activities

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Secondary Activities

Q1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following statements is wrong?

(a) Cheap water transport has facilitated the jute mill industry along the Hugli.
(b) Sugar, cotton textiles and vegetable oils are footloose industries.
(c) The development of hydro-electricity and petroleum reduced, to a great extent, the importance of coal energy as a location factor for industry.
(d) Port towns in India have attracted industries.

Answer:- (b) Sugar, cotton textiles and vegetable oils are footloose industries.


(ii) In which one of the following types of economy are the factors of production owned individually ?

(a) Capitalist
(b) Mixed
(c) Socialist
(d) None

Answer:- (a) Capitalist


(iii) Which one of the following types of industries produces raw materials for other industries?

(a) Cottage Industries
(b) Small-scale Industries
(c) Basic Industries
(d) Footloose Industries

Answer:- (c) Basic Industries


(iv) Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched ?

(a) Automobile industry … Los Angeles
(b) Shipbuilding industry … Lusaka
(c) Aircraft industry … Florence
(d) Iron and Steel industry … Pittsburgh

Answer:- (d) Iron and Steel industry … Pittsburgh


Q2. Write a short note on the following in about 30 words.

(i) High-Tech industry

Answer:- It is called High-Tech industry because it simply uses high-technology,which is the latest generation of manufacturing activities. The applications are developed through intensive research and development. Most of the workers in this industry are professional (white collar).Usage of robotics, computer-aided design (CAD) and electronic controls are common in this industry.

(ii) Manufacturing

Answer:- It transforms raw materials into finished goods of high value for its sale in different markets. In this way, it adds value to natural resources. It involves production on full scale such as moulding iron, handicrafts, stamping out plastic toys, assemble computer components or space
vehicles that are delicate.

(iii) Footloose industries

Answer:- Footloose industries are not dependent on any specific raw material, weight losing or otherwise. They largely depend on component parts which can be obtained anywhere. They produce in small quantity and also employ a small labour force. It can be located in a wide variety of places.


Q3. Answer the following in not more than 150 words.

(a) Differentiate between primary and secondary activities.

Answer:- Differentiate between primary and secondary activities are

Primary activities

i. These activities are directly related to Physical Conditions.
ii. Man obtains product directly from nature.
iii. These include gathering, hunting, fishing, mining and agriculture.
iv. Primary activities involve extraction of raw materials from the earth’s surface.

Secondary activities

i. In these activities, man changes the form of raw materials.
ii. These increase the value and utility of product.
iii. Manufacturing, dairy farming are secondary activities.
iv. Secondary activities involve transforming of raw materials into finished goods.


(b) Discuss the major trends of modern industrial activities especially in the developed countries of the world.

Answer:- In the Modern times manufacturing industries have flourished in major concentrations in many places. They cover around 10% of total global area. These countries are centre of political and economic power. In terms of total area covered, sites of manufacturing are less concentrated on small areas of agriculture due to higher intensity of processes. For example an American corn belt whose size is 2.5 sq km has four farms and employs around 15 workers and
support almost 100 persons. However, if the same area had some integrated factories it could have employed thousands of workers.

●Technological Innovation: They are done through development and research strategy
and are required aspect for eliminating inefficiency and waste, quality control and to combat pollution.
● Organisational structure and Stratification: Following factors characterise modern manufacturing:


(c) ) Explain why high-tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan centers.

Answer:- High tech industries are the latest generation of manufacturing industries. Professional workers make a large percentage of total workforce in this space. These workers are primarily based in urban areas. Since central areas of cities have high rents they have situated themselves in a periphery.

Metropolitan areas are region consisting of a densely populated urban population. Often it is regarded as vital economical, cultural and political centers of a state. These are also hub for regional and international associations and communications. These places can be identified by the sky-scraping buildings, shopping malls, metal roads, advanced hospitals, restaurants and other such amenities. Metropolitan cities also provide adequate employment opportunities and consists of skilled and highly skilled labours. High-Tech industries are highly mechanized, automated hence metropolitan areas are the perfect supplier of skilled labours, which is very important for this particular industry’s growth.


(d) Africa has immense natural resources and yet it is industrially the most backward continent. Comment.

Answer:- Africa has natural resources in abundant amount in terms of its water, forest and land resources apart from the mineral and energy resources. Its human resources are also not properly developed. It lacks all those characteristics that marks an industrially developed nation. Following are few reasons which explains why Africa is not developed industrially:

● Government Policies: Several African countries are facing or have faced political turmoil in the past where millions of people were killed. Due to this a long term and healthy government policies towards industries is absent in such countries. Due to this, even foreign MNCs hesitate to invest here.
● Access to Labour Supply: Since Africa is populous, there are plenty of Blue collar workers available. There is a shortage of skilled labour. Due to this industries suffer on technological and managerial fronts.


Extra Question of Secondary Activities NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 6

Q1. What is the footloose industry?

Answer:- Which industries are not wedded to any particular raw material, called footloose industries.


Q2. Where is the Silicon Valley located ?

Answer:- California (U.S.A.).


Q3. Which is the most important industrial complex of Europe?

Answer:- Rhine valley region is the most important industrial complex of Europe


Q4. Give two examples each of Basic and Consumer industries.

Answer:- Iron and steel, copper industries are basic industries, Tea and soap are consumer industry


Q5. Explain the main characteristic of professional workers (White collar)

Answer:- White collar workers does clerical workan in an office and draws monthly salaries at a fixed price. They perform managerial work for the organization.


Q6.Describe some common products of household industries.

Answer:- Some common everyday products produced in this sector of manufacturing include foodstuffs, fabrics, mats, containers, tools, furniture, shoes and figurines from wood lot and forest; shoes, thongs and other articles from leather ; porcelain, pottery and bricks from clays and stones ; jewelary and figurines from jade, ivory, pearls, bronze, gold and silver; and home remedies, paints, dyes, lacquer ware from saps, barks and seeds of plants.


Q7. Give an explanatory note on Joint Sector Industries.

Answer:- Joint sector industries are owned jointly by the government and private individuals who have contributed to the capital. In the joint sector, both the public sector and private sector join hands to establish new enterprise. It combines the merits of both the public and private sector. The concept of the joint sector matches with the concept of mixed economy. ? As a mixed economy is the combination of both capitalism and socialism, the joint sector is a combination of both public sector and private sector.

In the joint sector financial participation is 26% from the government, 25% from private enterprise and 49% from public and financial institutions. In case of a foreign collaboration or participation with a domestic partner, the share of government will be 25% Indian business concern 20%, foreign investor 20% and public 35% in the paid up capital. No single party can hold more than 25% of the shares without the sanction of the central government.


Fundamentals of Human Geography

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