NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography chapter 8 Transport and Communication offers you best answers for NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part A Fundamentals of Human Geography Chapter 8 Transport and Communication. This chapter designed by expert’s subject teachers to prepare students to score well. Here you find question wise complete detailed chapter questions and answers.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography chapter 8 Transport and Communication

Q1. Choose the right answer from given below:

(a) The Trans-Continental Stuart Highway runs between

(i) Darwin and Melbourne
(ii) Edmonton and Anchorage
(iii) Vancouver and St. John’s City
(iv) Chengdu and Lhasa

Answer: (i) Darwin and Melbourne

(b) Which country has the highest density of railway network?

(i) Brazil
(ii) U.S.A.
(iii) Canada
(iv) Russia

Answer:- (ii) U.S.A.

(c) The Big Trunk Route runs through :

(i) The Mediterranean-Indian ocean
(ii) The North Atlantic Ocean
(iii) The South Atlantic Ocean
(iv) The North Pacific Ocean

Answer:- (ii) The North Atlantic Ocean.

(d) The Big Inch pipeline transports :

(i) Milk
(ii) Liquid petroleum gas (LPG)
(iii) Water
(iv) Petroleum

Answer:- (iv) Petroleum.

(e) Which one pair of the following places is linked by Channel Tunnel ?

(i) London-Berlin
(ii) Paris-London
(ii) Berlin-Paris
(iv) Barcelona-Berlin

Answer:- (ii) Paris-London.

Q2.Answer the following Questions in about 30 words :

(a) What are the problems of road transport in mountainous, desert and flood prone regions ?

Answer:- Transport is a facility through which goods and people can be carried from one place to
another. Mainly the transportation depends on physiography of nature.

Mountainous region: They have irregular terrain due to which road construction becomes
difficult as cutting through mountains is both costly and dangerous.

Desert Region: Here, sand does not provide a strong base to construct roads. Flood Prone areas: During floods, the roads are full of water which makes it unfit for use.

(b) What is a trans–continental railway?

Answer:- The railway that connects two ends of the continent is called trans-continental railway. They
play a key role in economies of a country. They were constructed for political and economic reasons so that long runs can be facilitated in different directions. E.g. trans-continental Siberian railways.

(c) What are the advantages of water transport?

Answer:- The bulky goods are transported over a long distance with the help of water transport. They pay a key role in the economic life of a country. Its biggest advantage is that it is not required to do route construction for water transport. All oceans are linked with one another and can carry ships of all sizes. The port facilities are provided at different ends.
Water transport does not require route construction.
The oceans are linked with each other.
Oceans are negotiable with ships of various sizes.
Water transport is the cheapest means of transport.
The energy cost of water transport is low.

Q3. Answer the following questions is not more than 150 words :

(a) Elucidate the statement “In a well managed transport system, various modes complement each other.”

Answer:- Transport is a facility which empowers mankind with several advantages. It enables the movement of people and goods from point and destination to another. These movements take place over land, sea and air routes.
Land transport constitutes of railways and roadways.
Water transport constitutes transportation through ships and other carriers through waterways
and sea routes. Air transport constitutes transportation through airways, enabled by airline companies.
A well managed transport system creates a vital link between all three modes. It channelises the
resources of a Nation and creates a network of trade within the country as well as with the outside world.
Thus, we can conclude that, “In a well managed transport system, various modes complement each other.

(b) Which are the major regions of the world having a dense network of airways

Answer:- Nowadays frequent air services are available in different parts of the world. Although the
United Kingdom was the first country to pioneer the usage of commercial jets, it was the United
States of America which successfully developed the civil aviation network post war largely. Now,
more than 250 airlines of different countries offer their services to different parts of the world.
The developments that have taken place recently are changing aviation’s future course.
Supersonic aircraft can cover the distance between New York and London within three and a
half hours.
The Northern Hemisphere consists of a distinct east-west belt of inter-continental air routes.
Eastern USA, Southeast Asia and Western Europe consists of dense air routes. USA has 60%
of the world’s airways. London, New York, Paris, Singapore, Bangkok, Mumbai, San Francisco,
Rome, Frankfurt, Moscow, Karachi are some of the nodal points from where air routes
converges to all points.

(c) What are the modes by which cyber space will expand the contemporary economic and social space of humans.

Answer:- n developing countries, cell phones are used which is possible due to satellites. It is important for rural connectivity. After the optic cables were introduced, it allowed transfer of large quantity of data to be transferred in a secure manner. Currently, the Internet is the largest electronic network that connects billions of people across the globe.

Several countries have deployed artificial satellites in the orbit of the earth to connect remote corners of the world with limited on site verification. It has rendered unit cost and time of communication. Cyberspace is a world of the electronic computerised space. It is encompassed with Internet through the world wide web (www). Cyberspace exists everywhere.

Cyberspace has expanded on contemporary social and economic space of humans through e-commerce, e-mail, e-learning and e-governance. It is easily accessible to people in even remote areas.

Extra Questions of Class 12 Geography chapter 8 Transport and Communication

Q1. What is a trans-continental railways ?

Answer:- Transcontinental railways run across the continent and link its two ends. i.e Trans Saibarian Railway.

Q2. What do you mean by technological park ?

Answer:- Technological clustering of knowledge based activities which are oriented with science and technology i.e. software and micro electronics industries .

Q3. Which is an important inland waterway in north America ? Write two main features of this inland waterway.

Answer:- The great lakes –St. Lawrence waterways is an important inland waterway in North America.

Q4. Which major ports are linked by the north pacific ocean route ?

Answer:- North pacific oceanic route joins vancauvar , san francisco, Portland at the west of North America and Yakohama, Kobe, Shanghai, Manila in Asia.

Q5. What is internet ?

Answer:- Internet is the world wide web means the electronic digital word for communicating or accessing information over computer networks without physical movement of the sender and the receiver.

Q6. Which is the famous pipeline of U.S.A. state one advantage of pipeline transportation.

Answer:- Big –Inch is the famous pipeline of U.S.A.

Q7. Discuss the problems of road transport in Flood Prone Areas.

Answer:- In the flood prone area, there has been very heavy rainfall for more than six months of a year. The roads suffer from surface and gully erosion. The roads to be constantly repaired and maintained in serviceable condition, needing a huge expenditure. The devastating floods often breach and damage roads. Due to heavy rainfall or floods other problems like landslides and soil creep in the hills damaging the roads. The bridges are also broken. The roads need to be frequently bridged and many culverts, retention walls etc have been constructed several times. For these, labor and huge expenditure needed.

Q8. Discuss the problems of road transport in Mountainous Areas.

Answer:- Mountainous areas are uneven, so the construction of roads are very costly and risky. Frequent landslides and avalanches block road transports. Rapidly running water damages the roads. Numerous bridges, culverts are to be constructed at huge costs. Roads have not negotiated long distances to reach a nearby point due to undulating and high attitudes.

Transport and Communication

General: Transport is a service for the carriage of persons and goods from one place to the other using human’s animals and different kind of vehicles, Movement may be on the land, water, in the air.

Modes of transport: Land, Water and Air

Land transport: Most of the transport is done over the land such as man, animals, vehicles, pipelines. It is changed due to invention of steam engine, coal, petroleum. revolution in transport system.


  • Most economical
  • Suitable for short distances
  • Suitable for rural areas and hilly areas
  • Cheapest means of transport
  • Supplementary to the other means of transport
  • Door to door service
  • Easy to construct and maintain
  • There are metaled and un-metaled roads
  • Not suitable during rainy season
  • Quality of roads depends on country
  • Developed countries have good roads
  • The total motorable road length is15 million km33% N. America
  • Highest road density is found in West Europe
  • Traffic flows; increased in recent years.

Problems of road ways

  1. Lack of road side amenities
  2. Congestion in cities

Highways: Connect distant places. 80 meters wide separate traffic lanes bridges, flyovers and
dual carriageways help for traffic flow
Every city and port is connected with highways

Railways: Suitable for bulky goods, longer distances, high speed, cheap, it varies from country to country.

Fundamentals of Human Geography

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