NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 11 International Trade

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 11 International Trade

Q1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options:

(i)Trade between two countries is termed as

(a) Internal trade
(b) External trade
(c) International trade
(d) Local trade

Answer:- (c) International trade


(ii) Which one of the following is a land locked harbour?

(a) Vishakhapatnam
(b) Mumbai
(c) Ennore
(d) Haldia

Answer:- (a) Vishakhapatnam


(iii) Most of India’s foreign trade is carried through

(a) Land and sea
(b) Land and air
(c) Sea and air
(d) Sea

Answer:- (c) Sea and air


(iv) Which bne of the following is India’s largest trading partner (2010-11)

(a) U.A.E.
(b) China
(c) Germany
(d) U.S.A.

Answer:- (a) U.A.E.


Q2 Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Mention the characteristics of India’s foreign trade.

Answer:- After independence, India had to import various items like heavy machinery, agricultural
implements, mineral oil and metals on a large scale for economic growth.But our exports could
not keep pace with our imports which left us with negative or unfavourable trade in the initial
yas. Previously, India used to export its traditional commodities only which included tea, jute,
cotton textile, leather, etc. India now exports over 7,500 commodities. Since 1991, India has
emerged as a major exporter of computer software and that too to some of the advanced
countries like the USA and Japan.India has trade links with almost all the regions of the world.
India exports its goods to as many as 190 countries and imports from 140 countries. About 95
percent of our foreign trade is done through sea routes.


(ii) Distinguish between port and harbour

Answer:- Port

  1. A port is a point on the coast where ships can tie up for anchor.
  2. Ships load and unload commodities here.
  3. Indented coasts provide natural ports.
  4. A port is connected with a productive hinterland.

Harbour

  1. A harbour is an area of sea providing safe en­trance to ships.
  2. it protects the ships from waves and storms.
  3. River, estuaries, bays provide natural harbours such as Mumbai.
  4. A harbour provides sufficient room for an­chorage of ships.

(iii) Explain the meaning of hinterland.

Answer:- Hinterland is the surrounding area which is closely connected to the port with roads and
railways. The products of this area are sent to for export; and imported material is distributed
here for sale and consumption. For example, Andhra Pradesh is the hinterland of
Visakhapatnam port.


(iv) Name important items which India imports from different countries.

Answer:- India’s imports include pearls and semi precious stones, gold and silver, metallic ferrous
ores and metal scrap, non-ferrous metals, electronic goods, etc.


(v) Name the ports of India located on the east coast

Answer:- Major ports located on the east coast are :-

Kolkata and Haldia in West Bengal
Paradip in Odisha
Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh
Ennore, Chennai and Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu


Q3 Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Describe the composition of export and import trade of India.

Answer:- Imports. The major imports of India are:
Petroleum and petroleum products,
Machinery
Pearls-Gems
Gold-silver,
Chemical products
Fertilisers
Pulp-paper
Non-ferrous metals
Pulses.

Exports:
Engineering goods
Chemical products
Gems ornaments
Garments
Petroleum products
Agricultural products,
Electronic goods
Leather.


(ii) Write a note on the changing’ nature of International trade of India.

Answer:- India aims to double its share in the international trade within the next five years through
already measures such as import liberalisation, reduction in import duties, de-licensing and
change from process to product patents. India has trade relations with most countries and major trading blocs of the world.

➔ India’s largest export destination country continues to be the United States of
America (USA) followed by United Arab Emirates, China and Hong Kong. However, in 2018-19, growth of India’s exports to the Netherlands was the highest (40.7 per cent),
followed by China (25.6 percent) and Nepal (17.4 percent).
➔ China continues to be the largest source of imports of India accounting for 13.7 per
cent of the total imported value in 2018-19.
➔ Exchange of information and knowledge has surpassed exchange of goods and
commodities. Through its advanced software knowledge and excellence in the field of
information technology, India has emerged as a viable contender at the international
level and is earning huge amounts of foreign exchange through the same.
➔ Tourism has added to India’s upgraded position in international trade.
➔ India’s share in total world trade is continuously declining. It was 2.1% in 1950 and it
is 1% in 2005.

In recent years, international trade has declined globally due to the adoption of protectionist
measures by European and American nations, trade war between US and China, ineffective
trade bodies like WTO etc. Movement of professionals have increased specially to countries like Japan, Norway etc. which are experiencing negative population growth rate.


Extra Questions of Class 12 Geography Part B 11 International Trade

Q1. Name the major seaport which has been developed to relieve the pressure at Chennai seaport.

Answer:- Ennore is the major seaport which has been developed to relieve the pressure at Chennai seaport.


Q2. Name the two Countries which are the largest trading partners of India as per the economic survey report of 2011-12.

Answer:- UAE and China are the largest trading partners of India as per the economic survey report of 2011-12.


Q3. Name the country which is the largest trading partner of India.

Answer:- China constitutes 70,717.18 total trade with India during 2013-14. Therefore, China is the largest trading partner of India.


Q4. Name the seaport which was constructed to reduce the congestion of Kolkata port.

Answer:- Haldia port was constructed to reduce the congestion at Kolkata port.


Q5. Name the major seaport which was developed just after independence on the western coast of India.


Answer:- Kandla port was developed just after independence on the western coast of India.

Q6. Which port has been developed to relieve the pressure of Chennai port?

Answer:- Tuticorin and Ennore ports have been developed to relieve the pressure of Chennai port.


Q7. Which is the principle import commodity of India?

Answer:- Crude petroleum and petroleum products are principle import commodities of India.


Q8. .Which country is the largest trading partner of India?

Answer:- UAE is the largest trading partner of India.


Q9. Which export commodity of India has the highest value?

Answer:- Manufactured goods and engineering goods have the highest value in India’s export.


Q10. Name the first major sea port developed after Independence.

Answer:- Kandla.


Q11. What is the meaning of resources of a port?

Answer:- An inland area adjoining the port which provides the resources of a port.


Q12. Name the major sea port I located on the Hoogly river.

Answer:- Kolkata.


Q13. Name the agricultural products of export from India.

Answer:- Among agricultural produces, marine products including fish and fish products are at the top accounting for 3.1 per cent of the total value of export. Next in importance are cereals, tea, oil cake, cashew nuts, spices, fruits and vegetables, coffee and tobacco. A small quantity of raw cotton is also exported.


Q14. ‘Ports are the Gateways tp I trade’. Discuss.

Answer:- The word ‘Port’ comes from the latin word ‘Porta’ which means gateway. Port is the gateway of a country as exports and imports are handled through them. Therefore, ports are called the gateways to trade.


Q15. ‘Ports function as focal points for foreign trade’. Explain.

Answer:- Sea ports function as focal points for foreign trade of India. They act as collection centres of commodities from hinterland for further shipment to foreign destinations on one hand, and as receiving points of foreign consignments coming to India for distributing them in the interior part of the country.


Q16. State two main characteristics of sea ports of India. Name any two states which have two major ports.

Answer:- There are 12 major ports of India. These are the gateways for imports and exports of India. These serve as collection centres for commodities to be exported and for commodities coming to India for distribution. West Bengal has two major ports of Kolkata and Haldia. Tamil Nadu has two major ports of Chennai and Tuticorin.


Q17. ‘India’s international trade has changed in recent years in terms of volume, composition and direction.’ Support the statement with examples.

Answer:- Many changes have taken place in India’s foreign trade after 1947.

  1. Volume of trade. The volume of trade has increased many times. In 1951, the total trade was ₹ 1,250 crore; but due to industrial development; it has risen to ₹ 28,26,116 crores in 2010-11.
  2. Change in Composition of Exports. The import-export trade has undergone many changes. India used to export tea, jute, leather, iron ore, spices, etc. But now manufactured goods are exported such as Engineering goods, ready-made garments, Handicrafts, etc.
  3. Changes in the Composition of Imports. The ratio of foodgrains, cotton, jute increased in import trade. But now petroleum, fertiliser, steel, industrial raw materials, machinery, chemicals, are mostly imported.

Q18. India’s international trade has undergone a sea-change in recent years. Discuss.

Answer:- India has trade relations with all the major trading blocks and all geographical regions of the world. Among the commodities of export, whose share is significant over the last few years till 2010¬11, are agriculture and allied products (10 per cent), ores and minerals (4 per cent), gems and jewellery, chemical and allied products, manufactured goods (12 per cent) and petroleum products (17 per cent). The commodities imported to India include petroleum & coal petroleum products (31 per cent), pearls, precious stones (10 per cent), inorganic chemicals (5.2 per cent), machinery (12.56 per cent). Fertilisers cereals, edible oils and newsprint on other imports. International trade has undergone a sea change in the last fifteen years. Exchange of commodities and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information and knowledge. India has emerged as a software giant at the international level. It is earning large foreign exchange through the export of information technology.


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