NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 4 Human Settlements

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 4 Human Settlements

Q1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

(i) Which one of the following towns is NOT located on a river bank

(a) Agra
(b) Bhopal
(c) Patna
(d) Kolkata.

Answer:- (b) Bhopal.


(ii) Which one of the following is NOT the part of the definition of a town as
per the census of India?

(a) Population density of 400 persons per sq km.
(b) Presence of municipality, corporation, etc.
(c) More than 75% of the population engaged in primary sector.
(d) Population size of more than 5,000 persons.

Answer:- (c) More than 75% of the population engaged in primary sector.


(iii) In which one of the following environments does one expect the presence
of dispersed rural settlements?

(a) Alluvial plains of Ganga
(b) Arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan
(c) Lower valleys of Himalayas
(d) Forests and hills in north-east

Answer:-(d) Forests and hills in north-east


(iv) Which one of the following group of cities have been arranged in the sequence of their ranks i.e.1,2,3 and 4 in size?

(a) Greater Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Chennai
(b) Delhi, Greater Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata
(c) Kolkata, Greater Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata
(d) Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai

Answer:- (b) Delhi, Greater Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata


Q2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) What are garrison towns? What is their function?

Answer:- Garrison towns are the towns whose formation is a result of the setting up of a military base. They are also referred to as cantonment towns. Ambala, Mhow, etc can be referred to as garrison towns. The main function of the garrison towns is to cater to the needs of defence and people employed in defence services of the nation. These are specially designed for the purpose of military, navy or airforce activities.


(ii) How can one identify an urban agglomeration?

Answer:- Urban agglomeration is an extended city or town area of a central place and suburbs linked to it. It occurs when the relationships among cities shift from mainly competition to cooperation. Urban agglomerations have increased in recent decades.
An urban agglomeration may consist of any one of the following three combinations:
(i) a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths
(ii) two or more contiguous towns with or without their outgrowths
(iii) a city and one or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths together forming a contiguous spread
Thus, by identifying the above factors, an urban agglomeration can be identified.


(iii) What are the main factors for the location of villages in desert regions?

Answer:- In deserts, there is shortage of water. So villages are settled near water bodies. From social point of view, the land-owners occupy the central part of the village while lower sections of the society live on the outer flank of villages.

(iv) What are metropolitan cities? How are they different from urban
agglomerations?


Answer:- According to census of India the cities with population between 1 to 5 million are termed as metropolitan cities. An urban agglomeration is a stretch of urban area which may comprise two or more cities. Many of the metropolitan cities of India are basically urban agglomeration.

Q3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Discuss the features of different types of rural settlements. What are the
factors responsible for the settlement patterns in different physical
environments?

Answer:- There are four types of rural settlements:
Clustered: It is a compact or closely built up area of houses. The general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms, barns and pastures. These settlements are generally found in fertile alluvial plains and in the northeastern states.
Semi-clustered: These settlements may result from tendency of clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement. These pattern may also result from segregation or fragmentation of a large compact village. In this case, one or more sections of the village society choose or is forced to live a little away from the main cluster or village.
Hamleted: Sometimes settlement is fragmented into several units physically separated from each other bearing a common name. This segmentation of a large village is often motivated by social and ethnic factors.

Dispersed: These settlements pattern appears in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles, or on small hills with farms or pasture on the slopes. Extreme dispersion of settlement is often caused by extremely fragmented nature of the terrain and land resource base of habitable areas.
The factors responsible for the settlement patterns in different physical environments are:
Physical features include nature of terrain, altitude, climate and availability of water
Cultural and ethnic factors include social structure, caste and religion
Security factors include defense against thefts and robberies.


(ii) Can one imagine the presence of only one-function town? Why do the
cities become multi-functional?

Answer:- Towns are centres or nodes of economic development. Here site for residence is available. Towns provide specialized services. But the town is known for a specialised function such as education, mining, etc. But towns perform many functions at a same time. Therefore, we cannot imagine the presence of only one functional town.
Each town has to perform many functions. People are provided different types of services. So each town has different functions. Different functions are performed in different sectors of the town. The central part is a commercial or business centre. So the towns become multi-functional.


Extra Question of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 4 Human Settlements

Q1. Name any two modern towns built by the British in modern style?

Answer:- Mumbai, Chennai.


Q2. Which town was developed as centre of modern industries after 1850?

Answer:- Jamshedpur.


Q3. Name any two towns of India, initially developed as educational centres.

Answer:- Varanasi, Aligarh, Pilani etc., developed as educational center’s.


Q4. Why is India a popular tourist destination in the world. (CBSE 2018)

Answer:- Because of favorable climatic conditions, medical services, heritage home, national parks, etc.


Q5. Name two most ancient town in India.

Answer:- Varanasi and Ayodhaya.


Q6. What is meant by settlement?

Answer:- Settlement: Settlement means cluster of dwellings of any type or size where humans live. However in geography settlement is also considered as a process of coming together to live in an area or locality. This process of phenomenon is also called occupancies.


Q7. Name the main types of rural settlements in India.

Answer:- Rural settlements in India can broadly be put into four types:
(i) Clustered, agglomerated or nucleated,
(ii) Semi-clustered or fragmented,
(iii) Hamleted, and
(iv) Dispersed or isolated.


Q8. Differentiate between Hamletled and Dispersed Survival Settlements of India.

Answer:- Hamletled settlements: When a village is fragmented on social and ethnic factors, its units are separated from each other. They bear a common name. These units are called pauna, Para, Palli, nagla and dhani. Such villages are more frequently found in the middle and lower Ganga plains.

Dispersed settlements: Isolated settlements are called dispersed settlements. These are found in forests, on hill slopes and fragmente fields. These include hamlets of few huts. Dispersion of settlements is caused by extremely fragmented nature of the terrain. Many areas of Meghalaya, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala have this type of settlement.


Q9. Discuss the factors that determine the type of rural settlements.

Answer:- The rural settlements vary in size, shape and lay-out plans. The types of rural settlement depends upon the following factors :
(i) Physical Factors. Physical factors such as relief, altitude, drainage, water table, climate and soil play an important role in determining the type of settlement. In dry areas, the houses are clustered around a source of water.
(ii) Cultural Factors. Ethnic and cultural factors such as tribal, caste or communal identity are also important in determining the lay-out of a rural settlement. The nucleus of the settlement is occupied by land-owners. Harijan Dwellings are located on the periphery away from the main settlement. The settlement is divided into several units.
(iii) Historical factors. The Northern plains of India have been exposed to frequent invasions from invadors and conquerors. The villagers preferred to live in compact settlement in order to defend against the invaders.


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