NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 6 Water Resources

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 6 Water Resource

Q1. Choose the right answers of the followings from the given options:

(i) Which one of the following types describes water as a resource?

(a) Abiotic resource
(b) Non-renewable Resources
(c) Biotic Resource
(d) Cyclic Resource

Answer:- (d) Cyclic Resource


(ii) Which one of the following rivers has the highest replenishable ground water resource in the country?

(a) The Indus
(b) The Brahmaputra
(c) The Ganga
(d) The Godavari

Answer:- (a) The Indus


(iii) Which of the following figures in cubic kilometres correctly shows the total annual precipitation in India?

(a) 2,000
(b) 3,000
(c) 4,000
(d) 5,000

Answer:- (c) 4,000


(iv) Which one of the following south Indian states has the highest groundwater utilization (in per cent) of its total ground water potential?

(a) Tamil Nadu
(b) Karnataka
(c) Andhra Pradesh
(d) Kerala

Answer:- (a) Tamil Nadu


(v) The highest proportion of the total water used in the country is in which one of the following sectors?

(a) Irrigation
(b) Industries
(c) Domestic use
(d) None of the above

Answer:- (a) Irrigation


Q2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) It is said that the water resources in India have been depleting very fast.
Discuss the factors responsible for depletion of water resources?

Answer:- (i) The per capita availability of water is dwindling day-by-day. The reasons are both natural and
anthropogenic. Excessive demand of water, poor storage, low rainfall, urbanisation are few
reasons. Further available water resources are also getting polluted with industrial, agricultural
and domestic effluents, and this is limiting the availability of usable water.


(ii) What factors are responsible for the highest groundwater development
in the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Tamil Nadu?

Answer:- The groundwater development is highest in Punjab and Haryana due to agricultural development. For cultivation of Wheat and Rice, irrigation is necessary. Due to Green Revolution, groundwater is used in large quantity. About 75% of net sown area is irrigated.


(iii) Why the share of agricultural sector in total water used in the country is
expected to decline?

Answer:- The share of agricultural sector in total water used in the country is expected to decline in
the future because there has been an increase in consumption of water by industries especially
food processing industries and a shift in sectoral GDP. Also with an increase in population and
urbanisation, domestic demand for water is on the rise.
Use of water sprinklers and micro irrigation technology for irrigating agriculture fields will bring
down consumption of water in agriculture sector. Besides this,developing water-saving
technologies and methods like watershed management and rainwater harvesting also help to
reduce agricultural dependence on water.


(iv) What can be possible impacts of consumption of contaminated/unclean
water on the people?

Answer:- Water gets polluted by foreign matter, such as microorganisms, chemicals, industrial and
other wastes. Such matters deteriorate the quality of water and render it unfit for human use.
According to the statistics of World Health Organisation, one fourth of communicable diseases
in India spread through contaminated or unclean water. Drinking contaminated water, in medical
terms, may cause water-related diseases including diarrhea, bacterial dysentery, cholera,
typhoid and many other contagious illnesses.


Q3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Discuss the availability of water resources in the country and factors
that determine its spatial distribution?

Answer:- Availability of Surface Water Resources. There are four major sources of surface water.
Sources of surface water :
These are rivers, lakes, ponds and tanks

  1. In the country, there are about 10,360 rivers and their tributaries longer than 1.6 km each
  2. The mean annual flow in all the river basins in India is estimated to be 1,869 cubic km
  3. However, due to topographical, hydrological and other constraints, only about 690 cubic km. (32 percent) of the available surface water can be utilised.

Factors for Distribution.

  1. Rainfall. Water flow in a river depends on the size of its catchment area or river basin and rainfall within its catchment area.
  2. Variability. Precipitation in India has very high spatial variation, and it is mainly concentrated in Monsoon season.
  3. Rivers. Some of the rivers in the country like the Ganga, the Brahmaputra, and the Indus have huge catchment areas. These rivers, although account for only about one-third of the total area in the country, have 60 per cent of the total surface water resources.

(ii) The depleting water resources may lead to social conflicts and disputes.
Elaborate it with suitable examples?

Answer:- Commodity which is in short supply or scarce in nature is likely to cause disputes and
conflicts and water shortage is no exception. There are many water disputes and conflicts that
are taking place at the national and international levels today.
Most of the rivers of India are plagued with inter-state disputes. Almost all the major rivers of the
country are inter-state rivers as they flow in two or more states and their waters are shared by
two or more than two states.
Following are some of the inter-state river water disputes in India :-

  • Cauvery Water Dispute between Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.
  • The Krishna Water Dispute between Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • The Tungabhadra Water Dispute between Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
  • The Aliyar and Bhivani River Water Dispute between Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

(iii) What is watershed management? Do you think it can play an important
role in sustainable development?

Answer:- Watershed management refers to efficient management and conservation of wate
resources. It involves prevention of loss of water due to runoff and its storage through various
methods like percolation tanks, recharge wells, etc.
It includes regeneration and judicious use of all resources – like land, water, plants and animals
in the region. It’s main aim is to ensure sustainable and balanced relationship between nature
and society.
The Central and State Governments have initiated many watershed development and
management programmers in the country :-
➔ Haryali is a watershed development project sponsored by the Central Government
which aims at enabling the rural population to conserve water for drinking, irrigation,
fisheries and afforestation. The Project is being executed by Gram Panchayats with
people’s participation.
➔ Neeru-Meeru (Water and You) programme (in Andhra Pradesh) and Arvary Pani
Sansad (in Alwar, Rajasthan) have taken up constructions of various water-harvesting
structures such as percolation tanks, dug out ponds (Johad), check dams, etc.through
people’s participation.


Extra Questions of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 6 Water Resources

Q1. How much area of India was irrigated at the time of independence?

Answer:- 2.26crore hectares.


Q2. How much was the irrigated are by the end of tenth five year plan?

Answer:- 9.88crore hectares.


Q3. 15 Which means are responsible for the highest irrigation in India?

Answer:- Wells and tube wells.


Q4. Which state/areas have the highest intensity of irrigation?

Answer:- Kashmir valley, Western uttar Pradesh, Punjab, haryana, north Bihar, delta regions of Krishna and kaveri rivers and north-eastern Assam.


Q5. Which is the first priority of National agricultural water policy in the allocation of water?

Answer:- Drinking water.


Q6. How much water is wasted in flood irrigation?

Answer:- More than 30 per cent.


Q7. Name three measure of water conservation.

Answer:- Dams on rivers, recycling of polluted water, selected crops, efficient irrigation methods, use of pipe for irrigation, river basin transfer of water, harvesting rainwater.


Q8. When did the modern rainwater harvesting program starts?

Answer:- 1990-1991.


Q9. Describe the ground water resources in India.

Answer:- Groundwater Resources. The total replenishable groundwater resources in the country are about 432 cubic km. The Ganga and the Brahmaputra basins have about 46 percent of the total replenishable groundwater resources. The level of groundwater utilisation is relatively high in the river basins lying in north-western region and parts of south India.


Q10. ‘What are positive effects of irrigation ?

Answer:- Provision of irrigation makes multiple cropping possible.
It has also been found that irrigated lands have higher agricultural productivity than unirrigated land.
The high yielding varieties of crops need regular moisture supply, which is made possible only by developed irrigation systems.
This is why that green revolution strategy of agriculture development in the country has largely been successful in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.


Q11. How do human beings pollute the water through industrial and agricultural activities? Explain.

Answer:- Industries produce several undesirable products which pollute water bodies. Major water polluting industries are leather, pulp and paper, textiles and chemicals. Industrial wastes, polluted waste water, poisonous gases, chemicals, metals dust are disposed off in running water. The poisonous elements reach the rivers and water bodies which pollute the bio system of these waters.

India has traditionally been an agrarian economy and about two-third of its population has been dependent on agriculture. Irrigation is needed because of spatio-temporal variability in rainfall in the country and pollute water. Some pollutants also seep into earth and pollute the groundwater.


Q12. What are the two water problems in India /

Answer:- Due to increase in population, the availability of water is decreasing. The two main water problems are:
(i) Deterioration of Water Quality : Quality refers to purity of water, or water without unwanted foreign substances. Water gets polluted by foreign matters such as micro-organisms, chemical, industrial and other wastes. Such matters deteriorate the quality of water and render it unfit for human use
(ii) Water Conservation and Management :
Since there is a declining availability of fresh water and increasing demand, the need has arisen to conserve and effectively manage this precious life giving resource for sustainable development. Given that water availability from sea/ocean, due to high cost of desalinisation, is considered negligible,
India has to take quick steps and make effective policies and laws, and adopt effective measures for its conservation.


Q13. Explain any three factors responsible for depletion of water resources. Examine any two legislative measures for controlling water pollution in India.

Answer:- Depletion of water resources:
Water resources in India are very rapidly decreasing. It is due to the following reasons:
The use of water is increasing due to increasing population.
The Industrial sector is using water resources at a fast rate.
Water is used for irrigation to increase the agricultural productivity.
Water pollution is increasing.
Legislative measures :
(i) The legislative provisions such as the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 and Environment Protection Act 1986, have not been implemented effectively.
(ii) The Water Cess Act 1977, meant to reduce pollution has also made marginal impacts. There is a strong need to generate public awareness about the importance of water and the impacts of water pollution. The public awareness and action can be very effective in reducing the pollutants from agricultural activities, domestic and industrial discharge.


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