NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources

Q1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options:

(i) In which one of the following States are the major oil fields located?

(a) Assam
(b) Bihar
(c) Rajasthan
(d) Tamil Nadu

Answer:- (a) Assam

(ii) At which one of the following places was the first atomic power station started?

(a) Kalpakkam
(b) Narora
(c) Rana Pratap Sagar
(d) Tarapur

Answer:- (d) Tarapur

(iii) Which one of the following minerals is known as brown diamond?

(a) Iron
(b) Lignite
(c) Manganese
(d) Mica

Answer:- (b) Lignite

(iv)Which one of the following is non-renewable source of energy?

(a) Hydel
(b) Solar
(c) Thermal
(d) Wind power

Answer:- (c) Thermal

Q2 Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Give an account of the distribution of mica in India

Answer:- Mica is mainly used in the electrical and electronic industries. In India, Mica is produced in
Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Rajasthan which is followed by Tamil Nadu, West
Bengal and Madhya Pradesh. In Jharkhand, high quality mica is obtained from lower
Hazaribagh plateau. In Andhra Pradesh, Nellore district produces the best quality mica. In
Rajasthan, mica belt extends from Jaipur to Bhilwara and around Udaipur. Mica deposits also
occur in Mysore and Hasan districts of Karnataka, Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Madurai and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu, Alleppey in Kerala, Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, Purulia and Bankura
in West Bengal.

(ii) What is nuclear power? Mention the important nuclear power stations in India

Answer:- Nuclear power is the power that is obtained by the energy released from nuclear fission that is splitting of nucleus of radioactive minerals like Uranium and Thorium. The energy released from the nuclear fission is used to heat water, the steam released from it is used to rotate a turbine which generates electricity. The important nuclear power projects are Tarapur (Maharashtra), (Rajasthan), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu), Narora (Uttar Pradesh), Kaiga (Karnataka), Rawatbhata near Kota and Kakarapara (Gujarat).

(iii) Name non-ferrous metal. Discuss their spatial distribution?

Answer:- Bauxite, copper, lead, magnesium, zinc, gold and silver are non-ferrous metals. India is
poorly blessed with non-ferrous metallic minerals except bauxite and copper.
Odisha is the largest producer of Bauxite. Kalahandi and Sambalpur are the leading producers.
The patlands of Lohardaga in Jharkhand have rich deposits. Bhavanagar, and Jamnagar in
Gujarat have the major deposits of bauxite. Chhattisgarh has bauxite deposits in Amarkantak
plateau while KatniJabalpur area and Balaghat in M.P. have important deposits of bauxite.
Kolaba, Thane, Ratnagiri, Satara, Pune and Kolhapur in Maharashtra are important producers
of bauxite. Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Goa are minor producers of bauxite.
Copper deposits mainly occur in Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, Balaghat district in Madhya
Pradesh and Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts in Rajasthan. Minor producers of Copper are
Agnigundala in Guntur District (Andhra Pradesh), Chitradurg and Hasan districts (Karnataka)
and South Arcot district (Tamil Nadu)

(vi) What are non-conventional sources of energy

Answer:- Non-conventional sources of energy are those sources of energy which are generated by
using wind, tides, solar, geothermal heat, and biomass including farm and animal waste. All
these sources are renewable or inexhaustible in nature and do not cause environmental
pollution. These energy sources are more equitably distributed and environment-friendly. The
non-conventional energy sources will provide more sustained, eco-friendly cheaper energy after
the initial cost is taken care of.

Q3 Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) Write a detailed note on the Petroleum resources of India.

Answer:- Petroleum. Petroleum is the most important source of power in the present age. Many by-products such as kerosene, fuel, lubricating oils, grease, coke and asphalt are obtained from petroleum. Petro-chemical products have become very useful. Petroleum is used in agriculture industry, transport, paints, perfumes, cosmetics, etc.
It is the source of foreign exchange for many oil exporting countries. So, it is rightly called the ‘liquid gold’. Production. In about 10 lakh sq. km. oil bearing rocks are found in India. The oil reserves in India are estimated to be 50 crore metric tonnes.

The first oil field in India was discovered in 1867 at Makum in Assam. At present the production is as under: (а) Assam. In Assam, oil is produced in Digboi, Moran, Naharkatiya and Sibsagar regions.
(b) Gujarat. In Gujarat, oil is produced in Gulf of Cambay region at Kalol. Ankleshwar, Lunej, etc.
(c) Maharasthra. Oil has struck in the off-shore region at Mumbai High along the coast of Mumbai. It is the leading producer of crude oil in India. North Bassein and South Bassein are the important oil fields. The production of oil in India is increasing everywhere under the organisation of Oil and Natural Gas Commission. The production of oil in India rose from 26 lakh tonnes in 1951 to 182 lakh tonnes in 1982-83.

(ii) Write an essay on hydel power in India.

Answer:- Hydel power or hydro electricity is a source of energy which is generated from water. It is
non-conventional source of energy and it is non-polluting in nature. It has also become one of
the most economical sources of energy. Today, dams are built not just for irrigation but for
electricity generation, water supply for domestic and industrial uses, flood control, recreation,
inland navigation and fish breeding. For example, in the Sutlej-Beas river basin, the Bhakra –
Nangal project water is being used both for hydel power production and irrigation. The Hirakud
project in the Mahanadi basin integrates conservation of water with flood control.

India is the 7th largest producer of hydro-electricity in the world. India currently hastm 197
hydropower plants and 9 pumped storage stations. It ranks fifth in the world for potential
hydropower capacity.
A hydroelectric power plant consists of a dam which is built across a large river. The energy is
generated from the collection from the runoff of excess water during seasonal rainfall and during
the hydrological cycle.

Extra Questions of Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 7 Mineral and Energy Resources

Q1. Which is the largest producer of petroleum?

Answer:- Mumbai High, 65.80% of total production.

Q2 .18 What was the contribution of thermal power in total production of electricity?

Answer:- 84 Percent.

Q3. Which nuclear power plant is under construction with the help of Russia?.

Answer:- Kundankulam(Tamil Nadu).

Q4. Name three non-conventional sources of energy.

Answer:- Solar energy, Wind energy and Biogas

Q5. Use of which metal is proper in place of copper for its conservation? .

Answer:- Aluminium.

Q6. Which state is the largest producer of Coal in India ?

Answer:- Jharkhand.

Q7. Which is the largest oil producing area in India ?

Answer:- Mumbai High.

Q8. Where was first Electric power house set up ?

Answer:- In 1897 in Darjeeling.

Q9. Name any two ferrous

Answer:- Manganese, Nickle.

Q10. What are sustainable energy resources ?

Answer:- Renewable energy resources like Solar energy, Wind, Hydro, geothermal and Bio mass.

Q11. Give two advantages of wind energy. Mention four states of India having favorable conditions for the development of wind-energy.

Answer:- (i) Wind energy is pollution free.
(ii) It is an inexhaustible source of energy. Favourable conditions for wind energy are found in states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka

Q12. What is meant by ‘Mumbai High’ and ‘Sagar Samrat’ ?

Answer:- Mumbai High. Rich oil fields have been discovered in offshore region in gulf of Cambay, along the coast of Mumbai. Oil struck below the sea beds at a distance of 115 kms. from the shore on 19th February, 1974. The drilling was done with the help of Sagar Samrat (A drilling platform). This has become the richest oil field in India and is known as ‘Mumbai High’. It has been connected with the coast by a sub-marine pipeline.

Q13. What is bio-energy ? State four advantages of bio-energy.

Answer:- Bio-energy refers to energy derived from biological products which includes agricultural residues, along with municipal, industrial and other works,
Advantages:
(i) It is a potential source of energy conversion.
(ii) It can be converted into electrial energy, heat energy or gas for cooking.
(iii) It can process waste to produce energy.
(iv) It reduces environmental pollution.

Q14. What is nuclear power? Mention the important nuclear power stations in Indian.

Answer:- The power obtained by splitting stoms called nuclear power. India has six nuclear power stations. Among the important stations are as follows:

  1. Tarapur (Maharashtra)
  2. Kota (Rajastahan)
  3. Kalpakkam(Tamil Nadu)
  4. Narora(Uttar Prades)

Q15. Describe the development of Nuclear energy in India.

Answer:- Nuclear Energy. Nuclear energy is generated by splitting atomic minerals. The process is called atomic fission. Uranium, Monazite, Thorium, Placer deposits, Cheralite, Graphite and Zirconium are used for generation of nuclear power of atomic energy. India is rich in these minerals.
The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has been set up at Trombay (Maharashtra) for research in Nuclear Science. The first underground Nuclear Test was conducted on May 18,1974 at Pokhran (Rajasthan). Recently five underground Nuclear Tests were conducted at Pokhran, on 11th May, 1998. Thus, India became a nuclear power country.
Uranium and Thorium are used as raw materials for generating atomic power. These minerals are found in Bihar, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1947 in India. There are 7 atomic power stations in India with an installed capacity of 5780 million KW:

  • Tarapur (Maharashtra).
  • Rana Pratap Sagar or Rawat Bhata (Kota, Rajasthan).
  • Kalpakkam (Chennai, Tamil Nadu).
  • Narora near Bulandshahar (Uttar Pradesh).
  • Kaiga (Karnataka)
  • Kakrapar (Gujarat)
  • Kundankulam (Tamil Nadu)

Therefore, this energy can be generated easily and will last for a long period. There is shortage of coal, petroleum and water power in India. In such areas, Nuclear Energy plays a complementary role in the development of Industries. Conventional sources of energy will not last long. Nuclear power should be used to save the resources. These power stations though expensive can be easily set up. We can say ‘Nuclear energy is the hope of the future in India.’

Q15. Write a note on the development of non-conventional sources of energy in India.

Answer:- Non-Conventional Sources of Energy. Today non-conventional sources of energy include wind, tides, geo-thermal heat, bio-gas, farm and animal waste including human excreta. All these sources are renewable or inexhaustible. They are inexpensive and pollution free. These help in decentralization of Industries. Energy can be developed in rural areas and maintained at low costs.


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