NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries

Q1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options:

(i) Which is not a factor of industrial location?

(a) Market
(b) Capital
(c) Population Density
(d) Power

Answer: (c) Population Density


(ii) The earliest Iron and Steel Company to be established in India was:

(a) IISCO
(b) TISCO
(c) Visvesvaraiya Iron and Steel Works
(d) Mysore Iron and Steel Works

Answer:- (b) TISCO


(iii) The first modern cotton mill was established in Mumbai because:

(a) Mumbai is a port
(b) It is located near cotton growing area
(c) Mumbai was the financial centre
(d) All of the above.

Answer:- (d) All of the above.


(iv) The nucleus of the Hugli Industrial Region is:

(a) Kolkata-Haora (Howrah)
(b) Kolkata-Rishra
(c) Kolkata-Medinipur
(d) Kolkata-Konnagar

Answer:- (a) Kolkata-Haora (Howrah)


(v) Which one of the following is the second largest producer of sugar:

(a) Maharashtra
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Punjab
(d) Tamil Nadu

Answer:- (b) Uttar Pradesh


Q2 Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Why do you think that the iron and steel industry is basic to the industrial development of any country?

Answer:- The Iron and Steel industry is the bloodline of the industrial development of any country as
almost all sectors of the Indian industry depend heavily on the iron and steel industry for their
basic infrastructure. It provides raw materials for machine tools, construction, transport,
agricultural inputs and several other industries which are essential for modern industrial
development. The quantity of steel production and its per capita consumption are used as
measures to judge the level of industrialization and economic development.


(ii) Name the two sectors of the cottage textile industries. How are they different?

Answer:- The cottage textile industries has two sectors: The handloom sector and power loom sector. The handloom sector depends upon local labour (artisans); and local raw materials. Its production is limited. The power loom sector produces cloth on machines. It produces more than 50 percent of cloth.


(iii) Why is the sugar industry a seasonal industry ?

Answer:- Sugar industry is totally based on sugarcane as raw material. Sugarcane is a seasonal crop harvested annually. Since sugarcane is a perishable crop and its sucrose content starts to decline within 24 hours only, therefore sugarcane cannot be stored for production of sugar later in the year. As a result production of sugar is limited to only harvesting time of the sugarcane.


(iv) What is the raw material base for the petrochemical industry? Name some of the products of this industry.

Answer:- Low value by products of crude petroleum provides raw material base for the petrochemical industry.
The industry produces a range of useful products, including plastics, Polymers, synthetic rubber,
solvents, fertilisers, pharmaceuticals, additives, explosives and adhesives.


(v) What is the major impact of Information Technology (IT) revolution in India?

Answer:- The advancement in information technology particularly IT services and business processing
outsourcing in India has had a profound influence. The Information Technology (IT) revolution
opened up new possibilities of economic transformation leading to social and cultural benefits.
These services continue to be on a growing trajectory.
A large number of Indian software companies have acquired international quality.The
government has created a number of software parks with major impact on employment creation.


Q3 Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) How did the Swadeshi movement give a major impetus to the cotton textiles industry?

Answer:- The British did not encourage the development of the indigenous cotton textile industry. They exported raw cotton to their mills in Manchester and Liverpool and brought back the finished
products to be sold in India. This led to the decline of cotton textile industry in India as the cloth
imported from England was cheap.
The Swadeshi movement which gave a call for boycotting all British made goods and
substituting them for Indian handicrafts and cotton, accelerated the speed of development of the
Indian textiles. Mills were set up at Coimbatore, Madurai and Bangalore, Nagpur, Indore,
Solapur and Vadodara. More and more people boycotted British cloth and embraced khadi
cloth. This gave huge impetus to cotton industries.


(ii) What do you understand by liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation? How have they helped industrial development in India?

Answer:- The government has framed new Industrial Policy involving liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation. The new Industrial Policy was announced in 1991. The major objectives of this policy were to build on the gains already made, correct the distortions or weaknesses that have crept in, maintain a sustained growth in productivity and gainful employment and attain international competitiveness. Within this policy, measures initiated are :

  • abolition of industrial licensing
  • free entry to foreign technology
  • foreign investment policy
  • access to capital market
  • open trade
  • abolition of phased manufacturing programme, and
  • liberalised industrial location programme.

The policy has three main dimensions: liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation.

Liberalisation has resulted in reducing restrictions on many industries. According to new industrial policy, the licensing system, except on 9 major industries, has been abolished. Due to this, industrialists can start an industry of their own choice. Indian industries can compete in international markets.

Privatisation means to convert the public sector industries into private sector. It has reduced the importance of Public Sector industries. Globalisation means to adjust Indian economy according to world economy. For this, the import duty has been reduced or abolished.


Extra Questions of Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 8 Manufacturing Industries

Q1. Why manufacturing is significant?

Answer:- Manufacturing industries provide employment to a large number of people either directly or indirectly and as well as contribute significantly to the national economy. They provide us with all the manufactured goods for our use.


Q2. For which industries market plays an important role for their location.

Answer:- Cotton textiles and petroleum based industries.


Q3. Which state has the largest number of cotton mills?

Answer:- Tamil Nadu.


Q4. What is the contribution of IT industry towards India’s GDP?

Answer:- The IT software and services industry account for almost 2 per cent of India’s GDP.


Q5. When was the new Industrial policy undertaken?

Answer:- The new Industrial policy was undertaken in 199


Q6. When and with whose collaboration was Rourkela Steel Plant established?

Answer:- The Rourkela Steel plant was set up in 1959 in the Sundargarh district of Odisha in collaboration with Germany.


Q7. When and with whose collaboration was Bhilai Steel Plant established?

Answer:- The Bhilai Steel Plant was established with Russian collaboration in Durg district of Chhattisgarh and started production in 1959.


Q8. Which industries are included in traditional industries?

Answer:- Iron and steel industry, cotton industry and sugar industry are considered as traditional industries.


Q9.Why are petrochemical industries and IT industry considered as modern industries?

Answer:- These industries are considered as the most modern industries because they make use of latest modern technology machinery and computerized methodology.


Q10. Why do you think that the iron and steel industry is basics to the industrial development of any country?

Answer:- The iron and steel industry is basic to the industrial development of any country because iron and steel forms the basis of infrastructure for industrial development. Steel is used as basic material in the manufacture of metal products, electrical machinery, transport equipment etc.


Q11. What is the major impact of Information Technology (IT) revolution in India?

Answer:- Information technology has had a profound influence on the countries economy. The information technology (IT) revolution opened up new possibilities of economic and social transformation. The IT and IT enabled business process out sourcing service continue to be on a robust growth path.


Q12.Explain with suitable examples any three factors responsible for the development of Hooghli industrial belt.

Answer:- The following factors are responsible for the development of Hooghli industrial belt:

  1. Kolkata the best inland river port nucleus for the development of this region.
  2. Ganga and Brahmaputra provide ideal inland waterways in the surrounding area.
  3. Road and railways is well developed in the hinterland of Kolkata.
  4. Coal as the main source of power is available from chhota Nagpur plateau.
  5. Cheap labour is available from the thickly populated area.

Q13. Explain the locational factors of Industries with the help of suitable examples

Answer:- Manufacturing. Manufacturing is a secondary process of transforming raw materials into finished products. The raw materials of agriculture, forests, minerals are changed into new products. For example, clay is changed into pottery, timber is changed into furniture, etc.
These manufactured goods are more useful and valuable than the raw material. The location of manufacturing industries depends on a number of physical and socio-economic factors. These factors are called the basis of industries. No single factor decides the location of industries.


Q14. Account for the shifting of sugar industry towards southern India.

Answer:- Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of sugar in India despite the fact that ideal conditions for sugarcane are found in southern India. But recently, the industry is shifting towards the states of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in Peninsular India.
The yield per hectare of sugarcane is high in southern India
The sucrose content in sugarcane is high in southern India as compared to that in(Solved))— northern India
The southern states have installed new mills, where productivity is high and cost of productions is low.
Climatic conditions are ideal in southern states


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