NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context

ncertcourse.com offers you best answers for NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context. This chapter designed by expert’s subject teachers to prepare students to score well. Here you find question wise complete detailed chapter questions and answers.


NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Part B Chapter 9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context

Q1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

(i) Regional planning relates to :

(a) Development of various sectors of economy.
(b) Area specific approach of development.
(c) Area differences in transportation network.
(d) Development of rural areas.

Answer:- (b) Area specific approach of development.


(ii) ITDP refers to which one of the following?

(a) Integrated Tourism Development Programme
(b) Integrated Travel Development Programme
(c) Integrated Tribal Development Programme
(d) Integrated Transport Development Programme

Answer:- (c) Integrated Tribal Development Programme


(iii) Which one of the following is the most crucial factor for sustainable
development in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?

(a) Agricultural development
(b) Eco-development
(c) Transport development
(d) Colonisation of land

Answer:- (b) Eco-development


Q2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) What are the social benefits of ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region.

Answer:- The social benefits derived from ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region included increase in
literacy rate, improvement in sex ratio and decline in child marriage.
There has been a significant decline in gender inequality. One of the most significant
contributions of tribal sub-plan in Bharmaur region is the development of infrastructure in terms
of schools, healthcare facilities, potable water, roads, communications and electricity.


(ii) Define the concept of sustainable development?

Answer:- Brundtland Report defines sustainable development as “development that meets the needs
of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
Sustainable development is the all round development which considers various ecological,
social and economic aspects of development during the present times and also develops
strategies for conservation of resources to enable our future generations to use these
resources.


(iii) What are the positive impacts of irrigation on Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?

Answer:- Indira Gandhi Canal, previously known as the Rajasthan Canal, is one of the largest canal systems in India. The canal originates at Harike barrage in Punjab and runs parallel to Pakistan border at an average distance of 40 km in Thar Desert (Marusthali) of Rajasthan. The introduction of canal irrigation in this dry land has transformed its ecology, economy and society. It has influenced the environmental conditions of the region both positively as well as negatively.

The availability of soil moisture for a longer period of time and various afforestation and pasture development programmes under CAD have resulted in greening the land. This has also helped in reducing wind erosion and siltation of canal systems. It has led to tremendous increase in agricultural and livestock productivity. Spread of canal irrigation has led to increase in cultivated area and intensity of cropping. The traditional crops sown in the area, gram, bajra and jowar have been replaced by wheat, cotton, groundnut and rice.


Q3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words:

(i) Write short notes on drought-prone area programme. How does this programme help in the development of dryland agriculture in India?

Answer:- The Drought-prone area programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan. It’s major objective was to provide employment to the people in drought-prone areas and create
productive assets. The initial aims of this programme laid emphasis on the construction of
labour-intensive civil works, gradually it emphasised on irrigation projects, land development
programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure,
such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services. This programme is largely confined to the
development of agriculture and allied sectors with major focus on restoration of ecological
balance.

Since growing population pressure is forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands for
agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological degradation, there is a need to create alternative
employment opportunities in the drought prone areas. The other strategies of development of
these areas include adoption of integrated watershed development approach at the micro-level.
The restoration of ecological balance between water, soil, plants, and human and animal
population should be a basic consideration in the strategy of development of drought-prone
areas.
The Planning Commission of India (1967) identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the country
prone to drought. The Irrigation Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of 30 per cent
irrigated area and demarcated the drought-prone areas. Broadly, the drought prone area in
India spread over semi-arid and arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh,
Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Rayalaseema and Telangana plateaus of Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka plateau and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu. The drought-prone areas of
Punjab, Haryana and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due to the spread of irrigation in
these regions


(ii) Suggest the measures of promotion of sustainability in Indira Gandhi
Canal Command Area.

Answer:- The ecological sustainability of Indira Gandhi Canal Project has been questioned by various scholars. It is a hard fact that attaining sustainable development in the command area requires major thrust upon the measures to achieve ecological sustainability. Hence, five of the seven measures proposed to promote sustainable development in the command area are meant to restore ecological balance.

The first requirement is strict implementation of water management policy. The canal project envisages protective irrigation in Stage-I and extensive irrigation of crops and pasture development in Stage-II.
In general, the cropping pattern shall not include water intensive crops. It shall be adhered to and people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits.
The CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development and levelling and warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet) shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.

The areas affected by water logging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed.
The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development is necessary particularly in the fragile environment of Stage-II.
The social sustainability in the region can be achieved only if the land allottees having poor economic background are provided adequate financial and institutional support for cultivation of land.
The economic sustainability in the region cannot be attained only through development of agriculture and animal husbandry. The agricultural and allied activities have to develop along with other sectors of economy. This shall lead to diversification of economic base and establishment of functional linkages between basic villages, agro-service centers and market centers.


Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 NCERT Extra Questions

Q1. Who is present deputy chairman of planning commission in India?

Answer:- (Montek Singh Ahluwalia)


Q2. When planning commission was organized in India?

Answer:- In the Year 1950.


Q3. Who was the founder the concept of Indira Gandhi canal (Rajasthan canal) for the Thar desert?

Answer:- The founder of the concept of Indira Gandhi Canal (Rajasthan Canal ) was Kanwer Sen in 1948.


Q4. What is total length of Indira Gandhi canal in command area?

Answer:- length is 9060 km.


Q5. In which year agriculture climate planning was started in India?

Answer:- In the year 1988


Q6. How many districts of Uttarakhand were involved in hill development program?

Answer:- Eight


Q7. What was the main objective to implement the Fourth Five Year Plan for the people in drought prone areas ?

Answer:- The main objective was to provide employment to the people in drought prone areas.


Q8. In which Five Year Plan of India was the Hill Area Development programme initiated?

Answer:- Hill Area Development programme was initiated during the Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-75 upto 1977-78) to harness indiginous resources.


Q9. What is sectoral planning ?

Answer:- Development of various sectors of the economy.


Q10. How has the Gaddi Tribal community of Bharamaur region maintained the district identity ?

Answer:- By practising Transhumance.


Q11. Which aspects have been developed in hill area development ?

Answer:- The detailed plans for the development of hill areas were drawn keeping in view their topographical, ecological, social and economic conditions. These programmes aimed at harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill areas through development of horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry and small-scale and village industry.


Q12. What were the objectives of Drought Prone Area Programme ?

Answer:- Drought Prone Area Programme. This programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan wdth the objectives of providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets. Initially this programme laid emphasis on the construction of labour-intensive civil works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services.


Q13. Which areas are Drought Prone Areas in India ?

Answer:- Planning Commission of India (1967) identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the country prone to drought. Irrigation Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of 30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the drought prone areas.

Broadly, the drought-prone area in India are spread over semi-arid and arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana plateaus, Karnataka plateau and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu. The drought prone areas of Punjab, Haryana and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due to spread of irrigation in these regions.


Q14. Which are droughts prone areas in India?

Answer:- Rajasthan, Gujarat, western Madhya Pradesh Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Royal Seema and Telangana plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka Plateau and highland and interior parts of Tamilnadu etc


Q15. Which programes are given in priority for development of Bharmaur Region?

Answer:- This plan arid the highest priority on development of

  1. Transport
  2. Communication
  3. Agriculture allied activities 4. Social Community Services etc…

Q15. Name those Five Year Plans of India which could not complete its duration.

Answer:- India has centralised planning and the task of planning in India has been entrusted to the Planning Commission. It is a statutory body headed by the Prime Minister and has a Deputy Chairman and members. The planning in the country is largely carried out through Five Year Plans by the Planning Commission.

Two successive droughts during mid¬sixties (1965-66 and 1966-67) and war with Pakistan in 1965 forced plan holiday in 1966-67 and 1968-69. This period was covered by annual plans. It was called rolling plans. The Fifth Five Year Plan began in 1974-75 but it was terminated by the then government one year earlier, i.e. in 1977-78. Once again due to the political instability and initiation of liberalization policy, the Eighth Five Year Plan got delayed.


Q16. What measures for promotion of sustainable development have been taken under Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?

Answer:- The following measures for promotion of sustainable development have been taken under Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area:
The first requirement is strict implemen¬tation of water management policy. It envisages protective irrigation in Stage-I and extensive irrigation of crops and pasture development in Stage-II.
The cropping pattern shall not include water-intensive crops. It shall be adhered to and people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits.

The CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development and levelling and warabandi system shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.
The areas affected by water logging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed.
The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development is necessary particularly in the fragile environment of Stage II.
The social sustainability in the region can be achieved only if the land allottees having poor economic background are provided adequate financial and institutional support for cultivation of land.
The agricultural and allied activities have to develop along with other sectors of economy. It leads to diversification of economic base and establishment of functional linkages between basic villages, agro-services centres and market centres.


India People and Economy

Leave a Comment