NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 The end of bipolarity

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Class 12th Political Science NCERT Solutions Part A Contemporary World Politics

Q1. Which among the following statements that describe the nature of Soviet economy is wrong?

(a) Socialism was the dominant ideology
(b) State ownership/control existed over the factors of production
(c) People enjoyed economic freedom
(d) Every aspect of the economy was planned and controlled by the State

Answer:- (c) People enjoyed economic freedom

Q2. Arrange the following in chronological order

(a) Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
(b) Fall of the Berlin Wall
(c) Disintegration of the Soviet Union
(d) Russian Revolution

Answer:- (a) Russian Revolution
(b) Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
(c) Fall of the Berlin Wall
(d) Disintegration of the Soviet Union

Q3. Which among the following is not an outcome of the disintegration of the USSR?

Answer:- (d) Disintegration of the Soviet Union

Q4. Match the following:

(i) Mikhail Gorbachev a. Successor of USSR
(ii) Shock Therapy b. Military pact
(iii) Russia c. Introduced reforms
(iv) Boris Yeltsin d. Economic model
(v) Warsaw e. President of Russia

Answer:-

(i) Mikhail Gorbachev ——–> c. Introduced reforms
(ii) Shock Therapy ———–> d. Economic model
(iii) Russia —————–> a. Successor of USSR
(iv) Boris Yeltsin ———–> e. President of Russia
(v) Warsaw ——————-> b. Military pact

Q5. Fill in the Blanks

(a) The soviet political system was based on ———————— Ideology.
(b) ——————- Was the Military Alliance started by USSR.
(c) ——————– Party dominated the Soviet Union’s political system.
(d) ———————– initiated reforms in the USSR in 1985.
(e) The fall of the ———————— symbolised the end of the Cold War

Answer:-
(a) Socialist
(b) Warsaw Pact
(c) Communist
(d) Gorbachev
(e) Berlin Wall

Q6. Mention any three features that distinguish the Soviet economy from that of a capitalist country like the US.

Answer:- The three features that distinguish Soviet economy from a capitalist economy were :

(a) The majority of the economic avenues like land, employment etc were dominated by the state.
(b) In Soviet Economy, privation was not present and the welfare of the people was given primacy.
(c) The economic goods were present in a sama quantitative value as of USA but the qualitative aspect was quite modified in USA’s economic structure.

Q7. What were the factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR?

Answer:- The factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate reforms in the USSR are :
(a) The quality of the economic goods in the Soviet economic sectors was not as good as
in the USA.
(b) The governmental structures were hegemonizing the economic and political avenues,
which left little space for the non-governmental structure to work for the development of
the country.
(c) The political and electoral structure was dominated by CPSU (Communist Party of
Soviet Union) , which resulted in undemocratic control.
(d) The employment sector was in shambles as there was no space for private sector.
(e) The 15 republics, faced hegemonization from Russia as a dominating power as it
resulted in the negation of diverse interests.

Q8. What were the major consequences of the disintegration of the soviet union for countries like India?

Answer:- The disintegration had more benefits for India rather than harms , as it was
primarily because of its close proximity with Soviet-Russia because:
(a) India had signed a treaty of friendship with Russia (1971), which maximise the
economic cooperation between the two countries.
(b) India had signed 81 bilateral agreements with Russia.
(c) India had close economic relations with Russia as the Bokaro , Bhilai and
Visakhapatnam steel plants have always been in trade- relations with Russia.
(d) The military imports from Russia, also helped India to develop its structural and hard
power.
(e) As a soft power also, Indian artists have a large social capital in the societal paradigm
of Soviet-Russia.

Q9. What was shock therapy? Was this the best way to make a transition from Communist to capitalism?

Answer:- Shock therapy was actually an economic model, or the model of transition in
East-European countries, Russia and Central Asian Republics to change their economic
structure from communist pattern to a capitalist one.
No, it was not the best way to make a transition because:
(a) It resulted in the economic degradation of the respective countries as 1500 banks and
hundreds of enterprises or corporates were in shambles.
(b) It resulted in the bankruptcy of all the major areas, as Russia is still recovering from
the effects of Shock Therapy since 2001.
(c) It resulted in the under-valued condition of Rouble in comparison to other major
economies.
(d) It corroded the economic, political and social institutions of the major republics as it led
to the formation of authoritarian governments.

Q10. Write an essay for or against the following propositions: “ With the disintegration of the second world, India should change its foreign policy and focus more on friendship with the US rather than with the traditional friends like Russia.

Answer:- No, the disintegration of the USSR should not essentially effect the relations of
India with Russia as the major avenues of political, military and economy of the country
are deeply dependent upon the structures present in Russia. In economic sense, the steel
plants of ‘Bokaro, Bhilai and Vishakapatnam’ have an economically dependent inclination
towards Russia. In the sector of hard power, India is the second largest buyer of arms and
ammunitions from Russia. In political sense, the constant support by Russia on the issues
of Kashmir and Pakistan have helped India at the international level. The respective
cultural and social relations should be constant , as the world has witnessed the change
in the political structures. The avenue of ‘ unipolarity’ is considered as an illusion as it will
definitely result in the transition to ‘multi polarity’, due to the impact of ‘Globalisation’.

Extra Questions of The end of bipolarity

Q1. What is the new name of former USSR?

Answer:- Russia.

Q2. When did the Berlin Wall fall?

Answer:- November 1989.

Q3. Who was the General Secretary of Communist Party of Soviet Union in 1985?

Answer:- Mikhail Gorbachev.

Q4. Mention the role of Boris Yeltsin in the disintegration of the USSR.

Answer:- Boris Yeltsin had emerged as national hero after popular election in Russian Republic. In Dec 1991, under the leadership of Boris Yeltsin, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus declared themselves independent.

Q5. Highlight any one major distinction between the Soviet economy and the capitalist economy.

Answer:- The Soviet system was based on the principles of equality and the planned economy controlled by the state.
Whereas in the capitalist economy, private ownership is dominant. Land and productive assets are owned and controlled by the capitalist.

Q6. Highlight any one consequence of ‘Shock Therapy’.

Answer:- The Shock Therapy ruined the economy and people of the entire region. The large state-controlled industrial complex almost collapsed as about 90 per cent of its industries were put for sale.

Q7. What is the new name of the former USSR?

Answer:- The new name of the former USSR is ‘Russia’.

Q8. how many years did the Civil War continue in Tajikistan? When did it come to an end?

Answer:- The Civil War in Tajikistan continued for 10 years. It came to an end in 2001.

Q9.Why is it said that the collapse of the Berlin Wall signified the collapse of the bipolar world?

Answer:- The Berlin Wall was the hallmark of the Cold War. It symbolised the division between the capitalist and the communist world; a bipolar world. But, after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, people on 9th November 1989 broke the wall marking it as a symbol of unification of the East and West Germany into a single country with Berlin as its capital. The fall of the Berlin Wall was then followed by a line of events which marked the end of the Cold War and more importantly collapse of the bipolar world.

Q10. When and how did Russia revive its economy?

Answer:- Russia revived its economy in 2000 by the export of natural resources like oil, natural gas and minerals. Even other countries have also gained due to crossing of pipelines from their region and they have been paid a rent. Russia has started some manufacturing units also to revive its economy.

Q11. Write a note on tension and conflicts that occurred in Russia.

Answer:- In Russia, two republics—Chechnya and Dagestan—had violent secessionist movements. Moscow’s method of dealing with the Chechen rebels and indiscriminate military bombings have led to many human rights violation but failed to deter the aspirations for ‘independence’.

Q12. Mention the methods of‘Shock Therapy’ amongst the former Second World countries.

Answer:-

  1. The newly evolved criterion required to make a total shift to a capitalist economy to root out completely any structures evolved during Soviet period.
  2. Shock therapy involved a drastic change in the external orientation.
  3. Sudden and complete switch to free trade was considered essential.
  4. It also involved openness to foreign investment, financial opening up and currency convertibility.

Q13. “ The old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed”. With reference to Shock Therapy, justify the statement.

Answer:-

  1. The Government withdrew subsidies and pushed people into poverty.
  2. The middle classes were pushed to the periphery of society and the academic and intellectual manpower migrated.
  3. A mafia had been emerged and started controlling many economic activities.
  4. Privatisation led to new disparities.

Q14. Why did Soviet system become so weak and Soviet economy stagnant?

Answer:- Soviet system became so weak and Soviet economy stagnant due to the following reasons:

  1. The Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining nuclear and military arsenals.
  2. Soviet economy concentrated on the development of its satellite states in Eastern Europe especially in the five central Asian Republics.
  3. This led to a huge economic burden on people to be coped up with.
  4. Ordinary citizens became more knowledgeable about the economic advancement of the West and backwardness of Soviet system.

Q15. Why did Gorbachev’s reform policy fail in spite of his accurate diagnosis of the problem?

Answer:-

  1. When Gorbachev carried out his reforms and loosened the system, he set in motion forces and expectations that few could have predicted and became virtually impossible to control.
  2. Some sections of Soviet Society felt that Gorbachev should have moved much faster and were disappointed and impatient with him.
  3. The members of communist party felt that their power and privileges were eroding and Gorbachev was moving too quickly.
  4. In this tug of war, Gorbachev lost support on all sides and divided public opinion with the disillusionment of inadequate dependence.

NCERT Lessons for Class 12 Political Science Part. 1

Contemporary World Politics

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