NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Politics of Planned Development

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Class 12th Political Science NCERT Solutions Part B Politics in India Since Independence

Q1. Which of these statements about the Bombay Plan is incorrect?

(a) It was a blueprint for India’s economic future.
(b) It supported state-ownership of industry.
(c) It was made by some leading industrialists.
(d) It supported strongly the idea of planning.n

Answer:- (a) It was a blueprint for India’s economic future.


Q2. Which of the following ideas did not form part of the early phase of India’s development policy?

(a) Planning
(b) Cooperative Farming
(c) Liberalisation
(d) Self-sufficiency

Answer:- (c) Liberalisation


Q3. The idea of planning in India was drawn from

(a) The Bombay plan
(b) Experiences of the Soviet bloc countries
(c) Gandhian vision of society
(d) Demand by peasant organisations

(i) (b) and (d) only
(ii) (d) and (c) only
(iii) (a) and (b) only
(iv) All the above

Answer: (iv) All of the above.


Q4. Match the following :

(a) Charan Singh (i) Industrialisation
(b) P.C. Mahalanobis (ii) Zoning
(c) Bihar Famine (iii) Farmers
(d) Verghese Kurien (iv) Milk Cooperatives

Answer:-
(a)—-> (iii)
(b)—-> (i)
(c)—-> (ii)
(d)—-> (iv)


Q5. What were the major differences in the approach towards development at the time of Independence? Has the debate been resolved ?

Answer:- The major differences in the approaches towards the idea of development after independence were primarily on the lines of socialistic and capitalistic tendencies. The approach towards the rapid industrialization and technological advancement was subjected with the major clash with the agricultural development of the country. The socialistic tendencies inclined towards the welfare and betterment of the poor people often faced a hindrance in the name of capitalistic tendencies. Gandhi favoured the idea of decentralised development by giving
primacy to the unit of ‘village’ and ‘small cottage industries’ while as Nehru was exclusively in support of rapid industrialization and also the model of development present in the USSR.
Yes, the debate has been resolved as the India has adopted a mixed kind of economy but with the introduction of New economic policy in 1991,it tilted towards capitalism .It is primarily under government to decide the planning of development.


Q6. What was the major thrust of the First Five Year Plan? In which ways did the second plan differs from the first one?

Answer:- The First Five Year Plan was commenced in 1951 to be drafted by Young Economist
K.N. Roy with the emphasis on poverty alleviation. Its main thrusts were as follows:

  1. To invest in dams and irrigation to improve agricultural sector with the urgent attention.
  2. Huge allocations were made for large scale projects like Bhakra-Nangal Dam.
  3. It focused on land reforms for the development in rural areas.
  4. It aimed to increase level of National Income.
    The first five year plan differed from the second five year plan:
    (a) The Second Five Year Plan stressed on heavy industrialisation.
    (b) Second Five Year Plan wanted to bring quick structural transformation in all possible
    directions in place of slow and steady growth like First Five Year Plan.

Q7. What was the Green Revolution? Mention two positive and two negative consequences of the Green Revolution.

Answer:- Green Revolution is an agricultural revolution that came to India after the introduction of HYV(High yielding variety) seeds , just after the excessive famine and drought conditions in the northern India . Green Revolution had some great advantages but also affected the sectors in a colossal way due to its consequential harms.

The two positive consequences of the Green Revolution are :
(a)
. It brought the notion of ‘self-sufficiency’ to the agricultural and broadly , to the economic structure of India which further boosted its domestic paradigms.
(b). It increased the exports of India to foreign countries , which boosted the trade system and also increased the value of Indian economic system in the global market.
The two negative consequences of the Green Revolution are :
(a). This revolution was limited to the northern india while as it did not suffice to the conditions of famine in southern india because of the lack of proper distribution system.
(b). It resulted in the overproduction of wheat , barley, etc. while as the consumption was very low and the HYV seeds were only present for some major producing seeds


Q8. State the main arguments in the debate that ensued between industrialisation and agricultural development at the time of the Second Five Year Plan.

Answer:- : At the time of Second Five Year Plan, some controversial issues rose in reference of relevancy of agriculture over industry.

  1. Second Five Year Plan emphasised on industry in place of agriculture or rural India.
  2. J.C. Kumarappa, a Gandhian Economist proposed an alternative blueprint to emphasise on rural industrialisation.
  3. Bharatiya Lok Dal leader, Chaudhary Charan Singh also commented that the planning leading to creation of prosperity in Urban and industrial sections at the cost of rural welfare.

Others debated that without an increase in industrial sector poverty could not be alleviated:
(i) India planning did not have an agrarian strategy to boost the production of food grains.
(ii) It also proposed programmes of community development and spent large sums on irrigation project and failure was not that of policy but of its non implementation because of the politics of land owning classes.
(iii) Besides, they also argued that every if the government had spent more money on agriculture it would not have solved the massive problem of rural poverty.


Q9. “Indian policy makers made a mistake by emphasising the role of state in the economy. India could have developed much better if private sector was allowed a free play right from the beginning”. Give arguments for or against this proposition.

Answer:- No, as the notion of ‘mixed economy’ was quite important for the economic development of the country but the emphasis upon the state was imperative because :
(a) The state played an important role in creating a protective environment for native industries upon the ideals of protectionist regime.
(b) They also created a balanced system of tariffs on imports .
(c) The state intervention was important to minimise the concentration of resources.
(d) The state intervention is important to direct economic activities towards the welfare of people.


Q10. Read the following passage and answer the questions below :

“In the early years of Independence, two contradictory tendencies were already well advanced inside the Congress party. On the one hand, the national party executive endorsed socialist principles of state ownership, regulation and control over key sectors of the economy in order to improve productivity and at the same time curb economic concentration. On the other hand, the National Congress Government pursued liberal sole criterion of achieving maximum increase in producion.” —Francine Frankel

(a) What is the contradiction that the author is talking about ? What would be the political implications of a. contradiction like this ?
(b) If the author is correct, why is it that the Congress was pursuing this policy ? Was it related to the nature of the opposition parties ?
(c) Was there also a contradiction between the central leadership of the Congress party and its state level leaders ?

Answer:- (a) The contradiction stated by the author has stated is primarily between the capitalistic
proponents and socialistic proponents. This clash often results in the political implication of
factionalism or deliberation , where the harms and benefits are taken into consideration before
adopting a model.
(b) The Congress pursued the policy to increase the production along with the parameters of
Indian society. It was related to the ideology of some opposition parties who wanted the
introduction of liberal economic policies.
(c) The major contradiction was present between the national executives and central authorities
of Indian National Congress because former ones were in favour of socialism while as the latter
ones favoured the liberal economic policies.



Extra Questions of Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Politics of Planned Development

Q1. What is ‘Left’ and ‘Right’ in politics?

Answer:- These refer to position of concerned party in the group. The left signifies to favour
the poor and downtrodden section of society through government politics whereas the ‘Right’ favours free economy in the market not to be intervened unnecessarily by the government.


Q2. What is ‘Development’?

Answer:- Development refers to the process of improving living standard of country people and economic level in reference of industrialisation and modernisation to be judged by the improvements in the quality of life.


Q3. Why did India adopt planning?

Answer:- Because:

  • To bring a socio-economic changes.
  • It was to provide a controlled and faster growth rate.
  • To resolve contradictions between societies.

Q4. What is composition of Planning Commission of India?

Answer:-

  • It consists Prime Minister as its Chairman.
  • Some ministers or in charges of economic portfolios.
  • The members of Planning Commission have a high public image along with an administrative and educational background.

Q5. What was Bombay Plan?

Answer:- Bombay Plan was drafted in 1944 in the want of states to take major initiatives in industrial and other economic investment through a joint proposal of a section of the big industrialist for setting up a “Planned Economy”.


Q6. What are the objectives of planning?

Answer:-

  1. To make economy self reliant and self generating through planned strategies.
  2. To activate distributive justice among various sectors of economy.

Q7. What is meant by decentralized planning?

Answer:- Decentralized planning is designed to involve the peoples through voluntary
citizens organisation in making plans at the panchayats, blocs and districts level. Its example
is the ‘Kerala Model’.


Q8. Highlight the two areas on which the First Five Year Plan focused.

Answer:- The first five year plan was commenced in 1951 to be drafted by young economist K.N. Raj with the emphasis on poverty alleviation. Its main thrusts were as follows:

  1. To invest in dams and irrigation to improve agricultural sector with the urgent attention.
  2. Huge allocations were made for large scale projects like Bhakra-Nangal Dam.

Q9. What is Plan Holiday?

Answer:-

  1. Plan Holidays is a gap between two five years plan, i.e. 1979-1980 and 1990-92.
  2. It was a stop gap arrangements by the provisions of annual plans.
  3. Plan holidays took place due to change in government to be locked in development-goals and priorities etc.
  4. Those five year plans were supposed to be reviewed and changed by the succeeding government.

Q10. What results were revealed by Planned Economy?

Answer:-

  1. Big industrialists continued to benefit.
  2. The land owning classes became politically powerful.
  3. Land reforms could not take place effectively.
  4. The early initiatives for planned development were realising the goals of economic development.

Q11. What is meant by geopolitics?

Answer:- Geo-politics means politics of land territory. According to G.N. Singh, “A science dealing with the influence exercised by physical geography in determining conditions of political life and relation between state.” According to Houshofer, “Geopolitics demonstrates the dependence of all political development on the permanent reality of the soil.”


Q12. How was Kerla’s plan based on decentralized planning?

Answer:- Kerala’s plan was based on decentralized planning because peoples directly involved in development activities through voluntary citizen organizations. The officials took the initiative to involve people in making plans at the Panchayat, block, and district level.


Q13. Why does development have different meanings for different sections of the people?

Answer:- Different sections of the people have different meanings of development. For example, the iron or resources lie in some of the most underdeveloped and pre-dominantly tribal districts of the Orissa state. The state government passed the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for the development and global demand for steel. The tribal people fear that the setting up of industries would cause displacement from their homes and livelihood. They were also having the fear that mining and industry would pollute the environment. So, they protested and demanded the cancellation of the agreement.


Q14. Describe the strategy adopted by the Government of India to promote the Green Revolution.

Answer:- In the 1960s, India was facing a food crisis due to many reasons. India was dependent on the U.S.A. for food which was putting many limitations on India’s policies. Indian Government decided to make India self-sufficient in food. Hence the government adopted a new strategy for agriculture in order to increase food production. Since the mid-1960s, the traditional agricultural practices were gradually replaced by modern technology.

The use of high-yielding variety seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation are simply called Green Revolution or modern agricultural technology. As a result of the Green Revolution, the area under improved seeds has gone up from about 15 million hectares during 1970-71 to nearly 75 million hectares in 1995-96. The new varieties are of a short term duration and consequently, instead of growing one crop, two crops and sometimes even three crops are grown.


Q15. Write a note on the mixed economy.

Answer:- The economy is generally considered of two types. One is a capitalist economy and the other is a socialist economy. A mixed economy is based on the co-existence of these two types of economy.
In most of the poor countries of the world, a mixed economy prevails. A mixed economy is an economy where there is public and private ownership of the means of production. Production is undertaken for both welfare and profit motive. Production in the private sector is a for-profit motive while in the public sector, it is for a welfare motive. Thus, the pattern of mixed economy is the co-existence of public and private sector units.

Part B Politics in India Since Independence

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