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Class 12th Political Science NCERT Solutions Part A Contemporary World Politics
Q1. Which among the following statements about hegemony is incorrect?
a. The word implies the leadership or predominance of one State.
b. It was used to denote the predominance of Athens in the ancient Greece.
c. The country having hegemonic position will possess unchallenged military power.
d. Hegemonic position is fixed. Once a hegemon, always a hegemon.
Answer:- (d) Hegemonic position is fixed. Once a hegemon, always a hegemon.
Q2. Which among the following statements is wrong about the contemporary world order?
a. There is an absence of world government, which could regulate the State’s behaviour.
b. The US is the predominant player in world affairs.
c. States are using force against one another.
d. States, which violate international law, are severely punished by the UN.
Answer:- (c) States are using force against one another.
Q3. Which among the following statements is wrong with regard to ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’?
a. More than forty countries joined in the US-led coalition of the willing to invade Iraq.
b. The reason given for invading Iraq was to prevent it from developing weapons of mass destruction.
c. The action was taken with the prior approval of the UN.
d. The US-led coalition did not face major resistance from Iraqi forces
Answer:- (c) The action was taken with the prior approval of the UN.
Q4. Give an example each of the three kinds of hegemony that are dealt with in the chapter. Do not cite examples that are in the chapter.
Answer:- Hard power : The hegemonization in terms of the ‘military power’ is considered as the
hard power, in the context of political prominence. For example , the attack of USA upon
Afghanistan by the use of ‘MOAB’ by Donald Trump, shows the domination of the USA in
terms of hard power.
Structural power : The hegemonization in terms of the ‘economic power’ is considered as
the structural power, in the context of monetary prominence. For example, the change in
NAFTA, between USA-Mexico-Canada , will affect the parameters of economic
relationship of other countries, because of the economic domination by Western
Soft power : The hegemonization in terms of the ‘cultural power’ is considered as the soft
power, in the context of societal prominence. For example, the domination of Ramen or
Chinese noodles in most of the countries and also the growth of K-pop at a tremendous
Q5. Mention three ways in which US dominance since the Cold War is different from its position as a superpower during the Cold War.
Answer:- The era of bi-polarity, saw the dominance of the sectors by the two blocs- USA
and USSR as the division of the powers was present between the countries. The system
of the critiques to the models and the policies was also present in the context of Cold –
War. The power equation for USA changed in three main ways:
(a) Hard power:The hegemonization in terms of the ‘military power’ is considered as the
hard power , in the context of political prominence. USA dominated the avenue of military
as the military budget of the respective country is equivalent to the budget of the other 12
countries. The operations led by the USA like Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Desert
Storm etc are the evident examples of this power.
(b) Structural power: The hegemonization in terms of the ‘economic power’ is considered
as the structural power, in the context of monetary prominence. USA dominated the
economic avenue due to the domination over the world trade and economic treaties like
NAFTA, Bretton-woods agreement etc.
(c) Soft power : The hegemonization in terms of the ‘cultural power’ is considered as the
soft power, in the context of societal prominence. USA had a tremendous soft power due
to the propagation of ‘jeans culture’ and ‘Mcdonaldization’.
Q6. Match the following
(i) Operation Infinite Reach a) War against Al-Qaeda and Taliban
(ii) Operation Enduring Freedom b) Coalition of the Willing
(iii) Operation Desert Storm c)Missile Attack in Sudan
(iv) Operation Iraqi Freedom d) First Gulf War
(i) Operation Infinite Reach ——> (c)Missile Attack in Sudan
ii) Operation Enduring Freedom—–> (a) War against Al-Qaeda and Taliban
(iii) Operation Desert Storm——-> (d) First Gulf War
(iv) Operation Iraqi Freedom——-> (b) Coalition of the Willing
Q7. What are the constraints on American hegemony today? Which one of these do you expect to get more important in the future?
Answer:- We can identify three constraints on Ame years following 9/11 . Hence the US could established beginning to operate in the following ways: 1. The US bears institutional architecture in the Am the three branches of government where American upon the unrestrained and immoderate exercise. 2. The second constraint on American hegemony society and suffering from a deep skepticism towa despite an imposition of particular perspectives on US military action overseas. 3. The third constraint on US hegemony is the POSE hegemony today. The US has an enormous interes market economies alive and it may be possible to i hegemony through their own liberal policies to fulfill their own ends.
Q8. Read the three extracts in the chapter from the Lok Sabha debate on the Indo-US deal. Develop any one of these into a full speech defending a certain position on Indo-US relations.
Answer:- The following speech has been developed based on the excerpts from Lok Sabha debate as presented by Major General (Retired) B.C. Khanduri of BJP:
Sir, I would respectfully draw the attention of august house towards the US hegemony in today’s scenario. But we should not ignore the fact that India might be next waiting in the wings to perform as a superpower to maintain its own identity. Moreover, hegemony can not stand forever due to its weaknesses. Therefore, we are supposed to have a good and harmonious relations with that of the US for mutual promotion of trade and technology. But India should not compromise from the same on the cost of its own security and identity.
Hence, India should work in a diplomatic manner while it thinks to go hand-in¬hand the US in such a manner that India could extract best benefits from the US hegemony and find out mutual options for itself.
Q9. “If big and resourceful states cannot resist the US hegemony, it is unrealistic to expect much smaller and weaker non-state actors to offer any resistance.” Examine this proposition and give your opinion.
Answer:- The non – state actors will have a tremendous impact upon the hegemony of
USA because of these reasons:
(a) The media has an imperative impact upon the hegemony of USA, as it acts as a
system of checks and balances by assessing the undemocratic character of the government.
(b) The society and the civil societies have an impact upon the policies of government
because they act as the pressure groups upon the governing institutions.
(c) The feminist groups, trade unions etc increase their social capital and limit the
government from turning into an authoritarian one.
(d) The international agencies and volags( voluntary agencies) also help in limiting the
excess power of the hegemon countries like USA.
Extra Questions of Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics
Q1. How was Kuwait liberated from Iraq in 1990?
Answer:- In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait rapidly occupying and subsequently annexing it. All diplomatic attempts were a failure in convincing Iraq to quit its aggression. The United Nations took a dramatic decision to mandate the liberation of Kuwait by force. A massive coalition force of 66,000 troops from 34 countries fought against Iraq and defeated it, known as the First Gulf War also.
Q2. What was ‘Operation Infinite Reach’ ordered by President Clinton?
Answer:- Operation Infinite Reach was a series of cruise missile strikes on Al-Qaeda terrorist targets in Sudan and Afghanistan. For this, the US did not bother of any international law. This operation was ordered by President Clinton in response to bombing of the US embassies in Narobi, Kenya, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in 1998.
Q3. What was Operation Enduring Freedom?
Answer:- Operation Enduring Freedom was the US response against 9/11 attack to arrest all those who were suspected to be behind the attack, mainly Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. The US arrested the persons all over the world often without the knowledge of government of the person being arrested, transported them and detained in secret prisons.
Q4. How can hegemony be overcome?
Answer:- To overcome hegemony there are different strategies developed by analysts. As the bandwagon strategy reveals to extract benefits by operating within hegemonic system. ‘To hide’ strategy implies staying as far from the dominant power as possible. And it may be possible that various challenges to occur from non-state actors in the form of their writings, expressions to mould the minds of people.
Q5.Which incident was related to 9/11?
Answer:- The incident related to 9/11 was the attack on the World Trade Centre of America on 11th September 2001.
Q6. Highlight any one main feature of the US economy.
Answer:- One main feature of the US economy is that the US is present in all parts of the world and in all sectors of the world economy. The US share of the world economy remains an enormous 28 per cent.
Q7. What was ‘New International Order’?
Answer:- The ‘New International Order’ or the ‘New World Order’ appeared to begin after the sudden collapse of Soviet Union. Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. UN tried to convince Iraq to quit its aggression, then the UN-mandated the liberation of Kuwait by force. Then, the US President George HW Bush hailed the emergence of ‘New World Order.
Q8. Who was the target of ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ launched by the US as part of the war on terrorism?
Answer:- The US launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ as a part of ‘Global War on Terror’, against all those suspected behind the 9/11 attack mainly Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Although the Taliban regime in Afghanistan was easily overthrown, terrorist attacks by Al-Qaeda and the Taliban still continue and more so against Western targets.
The target of operation made by the US forces was all over the world.
They arrest people without the knowledge of the government of the persons being arrested. These persons were detained in secret prisons. Some of them were brought to Guantanamo Bay, a US Naval base in Cuba, where they have neither protection of international law, nor their own country law on that the US. Even UN representatives are not allowed to interact with these prisoners.
Q9. Explain the hegemony of the United States as hard power.
Answer:- As a hard power, the US power lies in the superiority of its military power. The notion of hegemony as military domination is relevant to the current position of the US in world politics. American military power is both absolute and relative.
Thus, the military dominance of the US is not first based on higher military spending, but on a qualitative gap and a technological charm. Attack on Vietnam is an example of the US hard power hegemony.
Q10. Do you justify the attack on Iraq in the name of ‘attack on terrorism’? Support your answer with any two arguments.
Answer:- No, the attack on Iraq by the US in the name of ‘attack on terrorism’ cannot be justified.
The two arguments which support the statement are:
- On 19th March 2003, the US launched its invasion of Iraq under the name ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’. More than forty other countries joined the US-led ‘coalition of the willing’ after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion. The purpose of the invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). Since no evidence of Weapons of Mass
Destruction has been unearthed in Iraq, it is speculated that the invasion was motivated by other objectives.
- The invasion was motivated with the objective of controlling Iraq oil fields and installing a US-friendly regime in Iraq.
Q11. Explain the three types of US hegemony and give examples for each.
Answer:- GO Hegemony as Hard Power:
(a) This hegemony signifies military status of America to be both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, it has military capabilities to reach any point on the Planet accurately and no other power today can remotely match them.
(b) The US military dominance is based on both the higher military expenditure and on a qualitative gap i.e. technological know-how.
(ii) Hegemony as Structural Power:
(a) It signifies ‘Economic Prospects’ of hegemon power to possess both the ability and the desire to establish certain norms for order and sustain global structure even including goods to be consumed by one person without reducing the amount of goods available for someone else.
(b) A classical example is academic
degree MBA (Masters in Business Administration) to presume business as a profession to be dependent upon skills that can be taught in a University which is uniquely American.
(iii) Hegemony as Soft Power:
(a) US Hegemony has its cultural dimensions also which implies class ascendancy in social, political and particularly ideological spheres to shape the behaviour of competing and lesser powers.Here, the consent goes hand in and more effective than coercion.
(b) For example, most of the dreams of individuals and societies across the globe, are dreams churned out by practices prevailing in twentieth—century America. All these are about the capacity to manufacture consent.
Q12. Examine any three factors responsible for the US hegemony in world politics.
Answer:- Factors responsible for the US hegemony in world politics are :
- Military capability After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, USA emerged as a superpower of the world. The USA showed her military power and strength in the First Gulf War of 1990. The USA was leading the coalition and 75 per cent of forces in it were of US. The US included sophisticated arms and many modern technologies to fight this war. US hegemony can be noticed, where it spends most of its earnings on military capability than the next 12 powers of the world.
- Economic and technological advancement Presence of US can be acknowledged in all sectors of the world economy and technology.
- Financial assistance Poverty in developing the world and financial assistance to these countries by the US helped in enhancing US hegemony. The global network of a satellite is owned by the US Government only. Internet is the direct outcome of US military research project.
Q13. Explain the three types of US hegemony and give suitable examples for each.
Answer:- The three types of US hegemony
- As a hard power, the US power lies in the superiority of its military power. The notion of hegemony as military domination is relevant to the current position of the US in world politics. American military power is both absolute and relative. Thus, the military dominance of the US is not first based on higher military spending, but on a qualitative gap and a technological charm. Attack on Vietnam is an example of the US hard power hegemony.
- For hegemony as structural power. The hegemony of the United States of America as a structural power emerges from a particular understanding of the world economy.
It can be summed up as follows:
The US exists as a dominant power to support the creation and existence of an open world economy.
The US also possess both the ability and desire to establish certain norms inorder to sustain the global structure so as to prove its dominance on grounds of economic structure.
The US reflect this hegemony by providing global public goods. These are goods that can be consumed by one person without reducing the number of goods available for someone else. For example Sea-Lanes of Communication (SLOCs), Internet, Road etc.
Another example of the structural power of US is the academic degree Master’s in Business Administration (MBA) to sharpen business skills in a University, The World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and WTO are also the products of the hegemony of the US as a structural power.
- Hegemony as soft power It deals with the capacity to ‘manufacture or develop consent’. This relates to clan superiority in social, political and, particularly ideological spheres. The predominance of US in the world today is based not only on its military and economic power but also on its cultural presence.
America is most appealing in the sense of most powerful culture on Earth. Diffusion of American culture in other countries is an example of soft power.
NCERT Lessons for Class 12 Political Science Part. 1
Contemporary World Politics
- Lesson 1 The Cold War Era
- Lesson 2 The End of Bipolarity
- Lesson 3 US Hegemony in World Politics
- Lesson 4 Alternative Centres of Power
- Lesson 5 Contemporary South Asia
- Lesson 6 International Organisations
- Lesson 7 Security in the Contemporary World
- Lesson 8 Environment and Natural Resources
- Lesson 9 Globalisation