NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power offers you best answers for NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power. This chapter designed by expert’s subject teachers to prepare students to score well. Here you find question wise complete detailed chapter questions and answers.

Class 12th Political Science NCERT Solutions Part A Contemporary World Politics

Q1. Arrange the following in chronological order

(a) China’s accession to WTO
(b) Establishment of the EEC
(c) Establishment of the EU
(d) Birth of ARF

Answer:- (b) Establishment of the EEC.
(c) Establishment of the EU.
(d) Birth of ARF.
(a) China’s accession to WTO.

Q2. The ‘ASEAN Way’

a. Reflects the life style of ASEAN members
b. A form of interaction among ASEAN members that is informal and cooperative
c. The defence policy followed by the ASEAN members
d. The road that connects all the ASEAN members

Answer:- (b) A form of interaction among ASEAN members that is informal and cooperative

Q3. Who among the following adopted an ‘open door’ policy?

(a) China
(b) EU
(c) Japan
(d) USA

Answer. (a) China

Q4. Fill in the blanks:

a. The border conflict between China and India in 1962 was
principally over __ and ______ region.
b. ARF was established in the year __________ .
c. China entered into bilateral relations with _ (a major
country) in 1972.

d. ___ Plan influenced the establishment of the
Organisation for European Economic Cooperation in 1948.
e. _ is the organisation of ASEAN that deals with security.

(a) Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin
(b) 1994
(c) USA
(d) Marshall Plan
(e) ASEAN Security Community

Q5. What are the objectives of establishing regional organisations?

Answer:- The objectives of establishing regional organisations are:
(a) To politically develop the countries , so that they can have a considerable impact upon
the decision-making processes at international level.
(b) To work for the economic development of the native or indigenous forces by
establishing consensus and cooperation.
(c) To culturally and socially unite the forces, to increase the level of ‘soft power’.

Q6. How does geographical proximity influence the formation of regional organisations?

Answer:- The geographical proximity influence the formation of regional organisations in
following ways:
(a) The geographic position affects the parameters of security of all the countries in that
particular region by similar forces, so the creation of organisations is mainly done for
security purposes for e.g. China in the context of Asia , witnesses huge amount of clash
by other south-asian countries like India, Bangladesh etc.
(b) The geographic position gives rise to same socio-cultural problems that result in the
formation of treaties between countries for e.g. the formation of ASEAN etc.
(c) The economical parameters also affect the unification of countries so that they can
tackle the economic problems of the respective countries by coalition of their interests
through a regional organisation for e.g. European Union .

Q7. What are the components of the ASEAN Vision 2020?

Answer:- The components of ASEAN vision of 2020 are:
(a) To enhance the position of ASEAN countries at global level.
(b) To resolve the conflicts in the geographical areas of the respective countries.

Q8. Name the pillars and the objectives of the ASEAN Community.

Answer:- The three pillars of ASEAN community (2003) are :
(a) ASEAN Security Community.
(b) ASEAN Economic Community.
(c) ASEAN Socio- Cultural Community.
The objectives of ASEAN community are :
(a) The economic development of the countries by the socio-cultural cooperative
tendencies to increase the ‘structural power’ on the basis of ‘soft power’.
(b) To increase the cooperation between the countries on political, economic and
socio-cultural lines.
(c) To resolve the conflicting parameters of the countries by establishing peace and
working towards a conflict -free zone.

Q9. In what ways does the present Chinese economy differs from its command economy?

Answer:- The present Chinese economy differs from its command economy as:
(a) The command economy was based upon the notions of socialism or communism
while as the present economy has a definite inclination towards capitalism.
(b) The command economy was based upon the state-controlled assets (land , property
etc) while as the present economy is based upon the ideas of free-market economy.
(c) The command economy was inclined towards the establishment of privation while as
the present economy is tilted towards the industrialization of the major sectors.
(d) The economic sectors was intrinsically connected with USSR but the present economy
has established bi-lateral relationships with the USA by the introduction of free-market
economy and ‘open-door policy’.
(e) The command economy resulted in the redundant economic system but the present
economy is based upon its own ideals of liberalisation( with its own inequalities ).

Q10. How did the European countries resolve their post-Second World War problem? Briefly outline the attempts that led to the formation of the European Union.

Answer:- European Union is a very strong regional organisation of European countries. It plays a very important role in the world politics. European Union is also called European Common Market or European Common Community. The two World Wars within a very short duration inflicted very heavy losses upon European countries. During six years of the Second World War, Euro-pean countries suffered heavy economic, material and manpower losses.

The Second World War shattered many of the assumptions and structures on which the European states had based their relations. After the Second World War majority of the European leaders were convinced that their relations should be reconstructed. They were compelled to find out solutions from European perspective and ultimately formed an organisation known as European Union.

Q11. What makes the European Union a highly influential regional organisation?

Answer:- As a supernational organisation, the European Union bears economic, political diplomacy and military influence as a regional organisation in the following manner:

  1. Economic Influence:
    (а) Three times larger share in world trade than the US.
    (b) Its currency Euro, can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar.
    (c) The EU functions as an important bloc in the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
  2. Political and Diplomatic Influences:
    (a) Two members of the EU, Britain and France hold permanent seats in the Security Council to influence the UN policies.
    (b) The EU also includes various non-permanent members of the UNSC.
    (c) The European Union play an influential role in diplomacy and negotiations except the military force i.e. the EU’s dialogue with China on human rights and environmental degradation is remarkable.
  3. Military Influence:
    (o) The EU’s combined armed fo^fees are second largest in the world.
    (b) Its total expenditure on military is second to the US.
    (c) Its two important members— Britain and France also experience nuclear ascends of 550 nuclear warheads.
    (d) The EU is world’s second most important source of space and communications technology.

Q12. The emerging economies of China and India have great potential to challenge the unipolar world. Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate your arguments.

Answer:- Yes, the emerging economies of China and India have a huge potential to
challenge the unipolar world . In the status quo, China and India are considered as
economic giants of Asia as they have a considerable impact upon the political and
economic changes in the systems. In this globalised world, the sanctions and changes in
the respective Asian countries have a huge impact on the economy of the USA. The
economic resistance of China with the USA , which is known as ‘ Trade War’ in the
contemporary world has already resulted in the international tensions. The tariffs imposed
by the US upon ‘HUAWEI’ has resulted in the imposition of retaliatory tariffs by China
upon the USA’s goods resulting in economic -slump and trade- war. The resourcefulness
of India and the presence of huge Indian- diaspora in USA has impacted the economic as
well as the political parameters of the country as they are engaged in major trades of
spices, textiles etc.

Q13. The Peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisations. Justify this statement.

Answer:- The peace and prosperity of the countries lies upon the strengthening of regional
organisations as:
(a) The regional organisations help in the establishment of peace by promoting
cooperation on political and economic lines.
(b) ASEAN has helped in the decreasing of internal conflicts for the establishment of
peace in the respective region.
(c) These organisations also work towards the socio-cultural cooperation among the
countries for e.g. ASEAN.
(d) These organisations desire to establish peaceful relations in the respective countries
by working towards the collective economic development.

Q14. Identify the contentious issues between China and India. How could these be resolved for greater cooperation? Give your suggestions.

Answer:- The relations between India and China are very ancient. Till 1962 the relations between the two countries were very cordial. China attacked India on 20th Oct. 1962. China declared Unilateral Ceasefire on 21st November 1962. By waging a war, China was able to capture thousands of miles of Indian territory which is still under Chinese possession. Given ahead are the main contentious issues between India and China :

  1. India and China have a controversy over the McMohan line, the border line between India and China.
  2. China entered into military alliances with Paki-stan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. These agreements pose a great threat to the security of India.
  3. Tibet issue is another issue of contentions be-tween India and China. India considers Tibet as an autonomous region of China, However, China considers Tibetan exile government in India an act of hostility.
  4. China by its action has not recognised Arunachal Pradesh as Indian territory. It has shown Arunachal Pradesh in Chinese maps.
    While boundary problem is still unresolved, both countries have come forward to strengthen their relations in the field of trade and commerce. Trade relations began in 1978 itself.
    In 2007 trade volume between the two countries rose to $40 b. Official and political leaders are exchanged. Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh visited China in Jan. 15, 2008. Indian Prime Minister and Chinese Prime Minister signed a joint declaration titled ‘A Shared Vision for the 21st Century.’ They also signed 11 Agreements for cooperation in rail, housing, geo-sciences, land resources management and other sectors.

Extra Questions of Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power

Q1. What is meant by ASEAN way?

Answer:- It is a kind of interaction which is informal, unofficial, non-confrontationist and cooperative.

Q2. What is meant by the ‘Maastricht Treaty’?

Answer:- ‘The Treaty of Maastricht’ was signed on 7th February 1992, establishing the European Union (EU) and laid the foundation for common foreign and security policy, cooperation and justice, home affairs and the creation of a single currency.

Q3. In 1992 which regional organisation was formed?

Answer:- The regional organisation formed in 1992 was the European Union.

Q4. What do ASEAN and FTA stand for?

Answer:- ASEAN stands for Association of South East Asian Nations and FTA stands for Free Trade Area.

Q5. What is SEZs (Special Economic Zones)?

Answer:- Special Economic Zones are created to set up their own enterprises by foreign investors.

Q6. Mention the three pillars formed in ASEAN.


  1. The ASEAN Security Community
  2. The ASEAN Economic Community
  3. The ASEAN Socio-Cultural Com-munity.

Q7. Mention the agreements signed between India and ASEAN.


  1. India signed Free Trade Areas (FTAs) with two ASEAN members, Singapore and Thailand.
  2. India is trying to sign on FTA with ASEAN itself.

Q8. What are the odds which limit the ability of EU?

Answer:- European Union is a supernational organisation but in many areas its member states have their own foreign relations and defence policies that are often at odds as-

  1. British Prime Minister Tony Blair supported the US’s Iraq invasion and many new members made US led ‘coalition of willing’ while Germany and France opposed it.
  2. Denmark and Sweden have resisted the Maastricht treaty and the adoption of the Euro.

Q9. “The European Union is a nation state more than a Economic Union”. Justify the statement.

Answer:- The European Union has now started to act more as a nation state because:

  1. European Union has its own flag, anthem, founding date and common currency.
  2. European Union bears common foreign and security policy.
  3. The EU has made efforts to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members especially from Soviet bloc.

Q10. How can we say that ASEAN is an economic association?

Answer:- To more extent it can be said that ASEAN is an economic association:

  1. ASEAN Economic Community aims at to create open market and production based activities within ASEAN states.
  2. ASEAN has created Free Trade Areas (FTAs) for investment, labour and services.
  3. The current economic strength of ASEAN as a trading and investment partner to the growing Asian economies as India and China make this attractive proposition.

Q11. What was the Marshall Plan? How did it pave the way for the formation of OEEC (Organisation of European Economic Cooperation)?

Answer:- Marshall Plan was a plan under Mr George C Marshall, US Secretary. America extended huge financial help for reviving Europe’s economy. New collective security structure was created under NATO. Under the Marshall Plan, OEEC was created in 1948, to help West European states. It acted as a platform where the West European states began to cooperate on trade and economic issues.

Q12. When was the European Union established? Mention any two kinds of influence that were exercised by the European Union,

Answer:- European Union was established on 7th February 1992 after signing the Treaty of Maastricht. Influences that were exercised by the EU are :

(a) Economic influence
(b) Political and diplomatic influence

Q13. What are the objectives behind the formation of ASEAN?

Answer:- The objectives behind the formation of ASEAN are as follows:

  1. Territorial disputes should not escalate into armed confrontations.
  2. To accelerate economic growth through social progress and cultural development.
  3. To promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principles of United Nations; charter.
  4. To establish Dispute Settlement Mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
  5. To create Free Trade Areas for investment, labour and services.

Q14. Describe any four significant characteristics of ASEAN.


  1. To create common market and production based activities within ASEAN States.
  2. To aid social and economic development.
  3. To resolve economic disputes, the existing dispute settlement mechanism has been improved.
  4. Free Trade Areas for investment, labour and services have also been created.

Q15. What role has been played by European Union in solving the problems of the European countries?


  1. The EU functions as an important bloc in international organisation as World Trade Organisation to intervene in economic areas.
  2. The EU has expanded areas of cooperation while acquiring new members especially from Soviet bloc.
  3. The EU has an influential role in the UN policies because its two members—Britain and France hold permanent seats in the UN Security Council.
  4. The EU is influential in the areas of diplomacy, economic investments and negotiation.

NCERT Lessons for Class 12 Political Science Part. 1

Contemporary World Politics

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