NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System

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Class 12th Political Science NCERT Solutions Part B Politics in India Since Independence

Q1. Which of these statements about the 1967 elections is/are correct?

(a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.
(b) Congress lost both Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.
(c) Congress lost majority in the Lok Sabha but formed a coalition government with the s upport of some other parties.
(d) Congress retained power at the Centre with an increased majority.

Answer:-
(a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.
(c) Congress lost majority in the Lok Sabha but formed a coalition government with the support of some other parties.


Q2. Match the following:

(a) Syndicate (i). An elected representative
leaving the party on whose
ticket s he has been elected
(b) Defection (ii). A catchy phrase that attracts
public attention
(c) Slogan (iii). parties with different
ideological position coming
together to oppose Congress
and its policies
(d) Anti-Congressism (iv). A group of powerful
and influential leaders
within the Congress

Answer:-
(a)—–> (ii),
(b)—–> (i),
(c)—–> (iv),
(d)—–> (iii).


Q3. Whom would you like to identify with the following slogans/phrases?

(a) Jai jawan, Jai kisan
(b) Indira Hatao!
(c) Garibi Hatao!

Answer:-
(a)Lal Bahadur Shastri
(b)Syndicate
(c)Indira Gandhi


Q4. Which of the following statement about the Grand Alliance of 1971 is correct? The Grand Alliance …

(а) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.
(b) had a clear political and ideological programme.
(c) was formed by all non-Congress parties.

Answer:- (a) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.


Q5. How should a political party resolve its internal differences? Here are some suggestions. Think of each and list out their advantages and shortcomings?

(a) Follow the footsteps of the party president
(b) Listen to the majority group
(c) Secret ballot voting on every issue
(d) Consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party

Answer:- (a) Follow the footsteps of the party president.
Advantages:
i.) It will result in the formation of the principal – agent method where the party can develop solutions to the problems very quickly as they will follow the basic ideology of the political executive.
ii). It will also result in less drifting of issue in the diverse legislative atmosphere and will create a pace for efficient system of governance.
Shortcomings:
i). It will ultimately result in the nullification of debate or discourse upon the idea and will spring into the domination of one narrative.
ii). It will decrease the level of representation within the party politics.

(b) Listen to the majority group.
Advantages:
i). It will result in the establishment of quick presentation of narratives.
ii). It will cater to the majority of the members resulting in more support for the future conditions.
Shortcomings:
i). It will only be subjected to one major section of the party and will result in factionalism.
ii). It will result in the fragmented party system and will dislodge the functional system of party dynamics.

(c) Secret ballot voting on every issue.
Advantages
:
i). It will make the party structure more democratic in its basic nature.
ii). It will increase the legitimacy of the party leaders and party decisions.
Shortcomings :
i). It will require more time and will not be feasible.
ii). It will require the system of transparency for its free and fair practice.

(d) Consult the senior and the experienced party leaders :
Advantages:

i). It will increase the level of legitimacy of decisions.
ii). It will give the large number of intellectual capital to the decisions.
Shortcomings :
i). It will result in the intellectual domination of surfacing ideas.
ii). It will minimise the space for young members to contribute and dissent.


Q6. State which of these were reasons for the defeat of the Congress in 1967. Give reasons for your answer.

(a) The absence of a charismatic leader in the Congress party.
(b) Split within the Congress party.
(c) Increased mobilisation of regional, ethnic, and communal groups.
(d) Increasing unity among non-Congress parties.
(e) Internal differences within the Congress party.

Answer:- (a) The absence of a charismatic leader in the Congress party.
This was not the primary reason for the defeat of congress in 1967 as the fall of the one party dominance was mainly because of the redundant position of the policies introduced by Indian National Congress which resulted in unemployment,famine and the rise of anti congress
sentiments.

(b) Split within the Congress party.
The split also created an uproar and was the major reason for the declining role of indian national congress as it got divided into congress(syndicate) and congress(requisitionist).
(c) Increased mobilisation of regional, ethnic, and communal groups.
The mobilisation of groups in several provinces led to the defeat of congress as there was a rise of powers like DMK in tamilnadu , AKALI DAL in punjab etc. The rise of communalism and regionalism broke the essence of congress as a grassroot organisation.
(d) Increasing unity among non-Congress parties.
There was no definite unity among the non congress parties but there was rise of the sentiment of non congressism. Even in the general elections of 1971, the grand alliance between the non congress parties did not affect the domination of Indira Gandhi over number of seats.
(e) Internal differences within the Congress party.
Yes , the rise of factionalism and internal dissent affected the political structure of congress and also gave rise to the instability during the election processes.


Q7. What were the factors that led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi in late 1970s?

Answer:- Because:

  1. Socialist credentials became main projects during this period.
  2. Indira Gandhi campaigned to implement land reform legislations and land ceiling legislations.
  3. She ended her dependence on other political parties by strengthening her party’s position and recommended the dissolution of Lok Sabha in December’ 1970.
  4. The crisis in East Pakistan and Indo- Pak war to establish Bangladesh as an independent one, also enhanced the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
  5. Indira Gandhi’s government was not accepted only as a protector of the poor and underprivileged but as a strong government also.
  6. Congress became popular among different social sections and restored dominance again.

Q8. What does the term ‘syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress party of the . sixties? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party?

Answer:- The term ‘syndicate’ in the context of Congress in late sixties meant the experienced political members of the party’s executive structure which affected its functioning and experimentation.
The Syndicate was responsible for:
(a) Constructing the Indian national congress and portraying it in the diverse politico administrative system.
(b) They were responsible for the nomination of Indira Gandhi as without their support it was not possible for her to come into power.
(c) They also played an important role in policy formulation.
Indira Gandhi was not able to establish a consensus with the Syndicate as it reflected in the presidential elections of 1969, which ultimately led to the split of indian national congress.


Q9. Discuss the major issue which led to the formal split of the Congress Party in 1969.

Answer:- The formal split in Congress took place in 1969 on the issue of nomination of the
candidate during presidential elections:

  1. Despite, Indira Gandhi’s reservations, the Syndicate nominated Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy,
    as the official Congress candidate for ensuing Presidential elections.
  2. Indira Gandhi retaliated the situation by encouraging Mr. V.V. Giri, the then VicePresident, to be nominated as an independent candidate.
  3. During election, the then Congress President S. Nijalingappa issued a whip asking all
    Congress MPs. MLAs to vote for N. Sanjeeva Reddy.
  4. On the other hand, after silently supporting V.V. Giri, the Prime Minister Mrs Indira
    Gandhi openly called for a conscience vote to vote the way they want.
  5. Elections went in favour of V.V. Giri due to this diplomatic effort and N. Sanjeeva Reddy
    was defeated.
  6. The defeat of N. Sanjeeva Reddy, the formal Congress candidate, formalised the split of
    party into two:
    (a) Congress (O), i.e. organisation
    led by syndicate, known as Old Congress.
    (b) Congress (R) i.e. requisitionists led by Indira Gandhi, known as New Congress.

Q10. Read the passage and answer the questions below:

FIndira Gandhi changed the Congress into highly centralised and undemocratic party organisation, from the earlier federal, democratic and ideological formation that Nehru had led…..But this… could not have happened had not Indira Gandhi changed the entire nature of politics. This new, populist politics turned political ideology ……. Into a mere electoral discourse, use of various slogans not meant to be translated into government policies…… During its great electoral victories in early 1970s, amidst the celebration, the Congress party as a political organisation died….. — SUDIPTA KAVIRAJ

(a) What according to the author is the difference between the strategies of Nehru and Indira Gandhi?
(b) Why does the author say that the Congress party ‘died’ in the seventies?
(c) In what way, did the change in the Congress party affect other political parties also?

Answer:-(a) According to the author, Nehru had a democratic approach towards the establishment of the Congress whereas the ideology of Indira Gandhi led to the split and rise of factionalism within the party structure.

(b) The author says that Congress party ‘died’ in seventies because it lost its essence of democracy
, flexibility and transparency.

(c) The change in the Congress party affected the political structure of other parties as they began
to run the elections not their policies, agenda and their manifesto but it was completely fueled by
Anti-Congress sentiments. The whole electoral politics succumbed to the mere portrayal of the
negative aspects of Congress rather than on merits.


Extra Questions of Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System

Q1. Who represented Congress (O) and Congress (R) after the split of the Congress Party?

Answer:- Congress (O) was represented by the Syndicate under Morarji Desai and Congress (R) was represented by Requisition under Indira Gandhi.


Q2. What is meant by the term ‘Congress Syndicate’?

Answer:- In the Indian National Congress, there was a group of senior leaders which was known as the ‘Syndicate.’ Due to differences between the Syndicate and Mrs. Indira Gandhi, there was a split in the Congress party in 1969.


Q3. Which major factor was responsible for the dramatic victory of Indira Gandhi in the 1971 elections?

Answer:- The slogan of Garibi Hatao and the programs that followed it became a prime political strategy of building an independent nation-wide political support base. Thus, it became a major factor responsible for the dramatic victory of Indira Gandhi in the 1971 elections.


Q4. After the death of Lai Bahadur Shastri on 10th January 1966, how did Smt? Does Indira Gandhi becomes the next Prime Minister?

Answer:- There was a contest for Prime Ministership between Sint. Indira Gandhi and Morarji Desai and Smt. Indira Gandhi defeated Morarji Desai, by securing the support of more than two-thirds of the Congress MPs.


Q5. After which General Election in India did the Congress party lose its dominance for the first time at the center?

Answer:- After the General Election of 1977, the Congress party lost its dominance for the first time at the center.


Q6. Which theoretical argument did Ram j Manohar Lohia give in defence on non- Congressism?

Answer:- “Congress rule was undemocratic and opposed to the interest of ordinary poor people, therefore, the coming together of the non-Congress parties was necessary for reclaiming democracy for the people”.


Q7. The results of which, elections were called j “Political Earthquake”?

Answer:- February 1967, Fourth General Elections to the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies.


Q8. When and where was the first non- j Congress state government formed after India’s independence?

Answer:– Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh in 1967.


Q9. Why are the results of 1967 elections in India called Political Earthquake?

Answer:- Because it jolted the Congress at both the central and state levels as Congress did not get majority in Congress ruled states.


Q10. ‘1960s were labelled as the dangerous decade’. Explain.

Answer:- Due to some unresolved problems like poverty, inequality, communal and regional divisions and the was speculations that all these could lead to a failure of the democratic project or even disintegration of country.


Q11. What was the status of SVD in the new era of coalition?

Answer:- The elections of 1967 brought the coalitions when no single party got the majority and joint legislator parties called ‘Samyukt Vidhayak Dal’ came together to form government to support non-Congress government:


Q12.Assess the economic situation of India before the general election of 1967.

Answer:-

  1. Before the general election of 1967 the economic situation of India was very poor due to successive failure of monsoons and widespread drought.
  2. There was a decline in agricultural production causing a serious food shortage.
  3. It caused a drop in industrial production and exports. At the same time, there was a sharp rise in military expenditure. All this resulted in the depletion of foreign exchange.
  4. Government was forced to devaluate the Indian rupee under the pressure from the U.S.

Q13. How did Congress face challenge of political succession second time?

Answer: The Congress party faced the challenge of succession for second time in 1966 after the death of Lai Bahadur Shastri:

  1. This challenge started with an intense competition between Morarji Desai and Indira Gandhi to be resolved through a secret ballot.
  2. Indira Gandhi defeated Morarji Desai by securing support of more than two-third of the party’s MPs.
  3. Thus, a peaceful transition of power despite intense competition for leadership was seen as a sign of maturity of India’s democracy.

Q14. What was the status of SVD in the new era of coalition?

Answer:- The elections of 1967 brought the coalitions when no single party got the majority and joint legislator parties called ‘Samyukt Vidhayak Dal’ came together to form government to support non-Congress government:

  1. The SVD government in Bihar included two socialist parties—SSP and PSP along-with CPS on left and Jana Sangh on right.
  2. In Punjab, it was called the popular United Front and comprised the two rival Akali Parties at that time.

Part B Politics in India Since Independence

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