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Class 12th Political Science NCERT Solutions Part B Politics in India Since Independence
Q1 State whether the following statements regarding the Emergency are correct or incorrect.
(a) It was declared in 1975 by Indira Gandhi.
(b) It led to the suspension of all fundamental rights.
(c) It was proclaimed due to the deteriorating economic conditions.
(d) Many Opposition leaders were arrested during the emergency.
(e) CPI supported the proclamation of the Emergency
Q2. Find the odd one out in the context of proclamation of Emergency
(a) The call for ‘Total Revolution’.
(b) The Railway Strike of 1974
(c) The Naxalite Movement
(d) The Allahabad High Court verdict
(e) The findings of the Shah Commission Report
Answer:- (c) The Naxalite movement
Q3. Match the following :
(a) Total Revolution (i) Indira Gandhi
(b) Garibi Hatao (ii) Jayaprakash Narayan
(c) Students’ Protest (iii) Bihar Movement
(d) Railway Strike (iv) George Fernandes
Q4. What were the reasons which led to the mid-term elections in 1980?
- Janata party lacked direction, leadership and a common programme.
- Janata party government could not bring a fundamental change in policies pursued by Congress.
- There was a split in Janata Party and the government led by Morarji Desai which lost its majority in less than 18 months.
- Charan Singh government was formed due to support of Congress party which later decided to withdraw its support resulting resignation of Charan Singh government within four months.
- All the above mentioned reasons led midterm elections of 1980, which defeated Janata Party and again Congress led by Indira Gandhi came back to power by winning 353 seats.
Q5. The Shah Commission was appointed in 1977 by the Janata Party Government. Why was it appointed and what were its findings?
Answer:- Shah Commission was appointed by Janata party in 1977, to find out about the malpractices, excessive abuse and violations of law that happened during Emergency in the country of India. The respective Commission was chaired by ‘Justice J.C. Shah’ and the findings were:
(a) Clearly against the imposition of Emergency and its consequential harms mainly on lines of being undemocratic.
(b) The lack of accountability and transparency was also stated as the biggest constitutional failure in context of Indira’s rule in India.
(c) It stated that the male practices were performed at a colossal rate , during Emergency.
(d) It demanded the presence of Indira Gandhi, but she never came for answering the questions.
Q6. What reasons did the Government give for declaring a National Emergency in 1975?
Answer:- The government declared the emergency on these grounds:
(a) The rising conflict between the executive, parliament and judiciary which majorly got fueled by the ‘Kesavananda Bharati case of 1973’
(b) The controversial appointment of ‘Justice A.N Ray as the Chief Justice of India’.
(c)The economic decline of the country by the rise of prices and the increasing poverty which led to the mass uproar against Congress government.
(d) J.P. Movement or Nav Nirman movement in Bihar and Gujrat was also one of the main reasons that led to an emergency.
(e) The influx of refugees from Bangladesh created an ‘Economic crisis’ in India which led to the internal disturbances and declaration of Emergency.
Q7. The 1977 elections for the first time saw the Opposition coming into power at the Centre. What would you consider as the reasons for this development?
Answer:- The 1977 elections were evolved as a shock to everyone as Congress party was defeated for the very first time and opposition party came into power:
- The opposition adopted the slogan ‘Save democracy’ against imposition of emergency earlier.
- The opposition campaigned non- democratic character of rule which provided various excesses.
- The opposition party highlighted the preventive detention and press censorship to favour public opinion.
- Janata Party also ensured not to divide non-Congress votes.
- Middle section of north India was moving away from Congress for whom Janata Party became a platform.
- Hence, elections of 1977 emerged many other factors instead about emergency only.
Q8. Discuss the effects of Emergency on the following aspects of our polity:
(a) Effects on civil liberties for citizens.
(b) Impact on relationship between the Executive and Judiciary.
(c) Functioning of Mass Media.
(d) Working of Police and Bureaucracy
Answer:- (a) Effects on civil liberties for citizens.
The emergency of 1975 affected the civil liberties of individuals in a way that they were curbed by the political institutions primarily central authority and the freedom of speech and expression was abolished by the union government.
(b)Impact on relationship between executive and judiciary.
The relationship between executive and judiciary became very controversial in terms of its unconstitutional and undemocratic nature as the hegemonization of political executive was clearly visible in the decisions and appointments of judiciary.
(c) Functioning of Mass Media.
The emergency led to the censorship and total crackdown on print and electronic media. The freedom of the press was curbed on the basis of assumption that they perpetuated communal and regional hatred.
(d) Working of the Police and Bureaucracy.
The police and the bureaucratic sector became completely centralised and resulted in a formation of steel frame system as it was complete opposite of committed bureaucracy and police
Q9. In what way did the imposition of Emergency affect the party system in India? Elaborate your answer with examples.
Answer:- It affected the party system as:
(a) The Emergency of 1975 changed the one party dominant system to a two party system where the Indian National Congress suffered a colossal amount of criticism by the opposition.
(b) The rise of the Janata party , primarily because of the declining role of congress policies and its undemocratic nature helped the former party to develop their party structure as anti congress.
(c) The party system changed as there was a rise of alternatives for individuals because of the brute impact of the Emergency.
Q10. Read the passage and answer the questions below :
Indian democracy was never so close to a two-party system as it was during the elections. owever, the ne t few years saw a complete change. oon after its defeat, the Indian ational Congress split into
two groups……….. … … … he anata Party also went through major
convulsions….. avid Butler, sho ahiri and Prannoy oy. — PARTHA CHATTERJEE
(a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?
(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are authors describing this period as close to a two-party system ?
(c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata parties ?
(a) The emergency and its consequential harms led to the visibility of two-party system in India.
(b) The author is defining this era as close to two-party system as the brute competition was visible amongst Congress and Janata party.
(c) The split in both parties was majorly because of the rise of factionalism and internal conflicts.
Extra Questions of Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 The Crisis of Democratic Order
Q1. In which year fifth general elections to Lok Sabha held?
Q2. Name the political party which came to power at centre in 1977.
Answer:- Janata Party
Q3. Who was Charu Majumdar?
Answer:- Charu Majumdar was a communist revolutionary and the leader of Naxalbari uprising. He founded the Communist Party of India (Marxist Leninist).
Q4. Name the president who proclaimed emergency in 1975 in India.
Answer:- President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad at midnight on 25 June 1975.
Q5. Who introduced Twenty Point Programme and Why?
Answer:- Congress government led by Indira Gandhi introduced ‘Twenty Point Programme’
to maintain law and order and to restored efficiency including land reforms, eradication of
bonded labour, land redistribution, workers participation in management etc.
Q6. Mention the Historic decision given by the court in famous Kesavananda Bharati Case.
Answer:- That there are some basic features of constitution not to be amended by parliament at all. It led to a crisis between the government and judiciary.
Q7. What was the controversy regarding the appointment of the chief justice A.N. Ray in 1973?
Answer:- It became political controversial because in this appointment the government set aside the seniority of three judges who had given ruling against the stand of government.
Q8. Why did Congress win in Southern states?
- The impact of emergency was not felt equally in all the states.
- The forced relocation and displacements , the forced sterilisations were mostly concentrated in the northern states.
Q9. Evaluate the consequences of declaration of emergency in 1975?
Answer: 1. It effected civil liberties of peoples i.e. in April11976 it was proved that the
government could take away citizens’ right to life and liberty by overruling of high courts under supreme courts and accepted government’s plea.
- The forth-second Amendment was also passed to bring a series of changes in constitution.
- It affected the functioning of mass media also as press censorship took place which banned freedom of press and newspapers, which were supposed to prior approval before they publish any material.
- Despite of filing many petitions government claimed it not to be necessary to be informed the grounds to arrested persons.
Q10. Explain any two lessons learnt from emergency imposed in 1975.
Answer: The emergency brought out weaknesses and strengths both to India’s democracy:
- First lesson was felt that it was extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India.
- Secondly, it amended that internal emergency could be proclaimed only on the grounds of armed rebellion, on the advice to the president to proclaim emergency must be given in writing by council of ministers.
- Thirdly, emergency made everyone more aware of civil liberties as well as courts also took an active role in protecting civil liberties of individuals.
Q11. Why did the Janata Party make the 1977 Lok Sabha Elections into a referendum on Emergency?
Answer:- The Janta Party made the 1977 Lok Sabha elections into a referendum on the emergency because of the non-democratic character of the rule and various excesses that took place during the emergency period. Due to the arrest of thousands of persons and the censorship of the press. Public opinion was against the government.
Q12. Explain any two lessons learnt from the emergency imposed in 1975.
Answer:- Following two lessons were learnt from the emergency :
- Bureaucracy and Judiciary should be independent. Bureaucracy should be independent and impartial. It should not be committed to the ideology and principles of the ruling party. Rather bureaucracy should be committed to the Constitution. Judiciary should not be subordinated to the executive. Judiciary should be independent and it should protect the rights and liberties of the citizens.
- The government should run the administration according to the provisions of the constitution. Judiciary is the guardian of the constitution.
Part B Politics in India Since Independence
- Lesson 1 Challenges of Nation Building
- Lesson 2 Era of One Party Dominance
- Lesson 3 Politics of Planned Development
- Lesson 4 India’s External Relations
- Lesson 5 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System
- Lesson 6 The Crisis of Democratic Order
- Lesson 7 Rise of Popular Movements
- Lesson 8 Regional Aspirations
- Lesson 9 Recent Developments in Indian Politics