Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 with Answers

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

Page No. 178

Exercises

Q1. Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.

Answer: Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.
Animal husbandry plays a major role in the welfare of humas in the following ways.

1) It increases food production and caters to the increasing food demand.
2) It provides various animal products like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey etc used by the humans.
3) On the commercial aspect, it also fetches a lot of money from export of the animal products.
4) Demand for aquatic foods especially fish and fish products has also been met by animal husbandry practice.

Q2. If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?

Answer: Dairy farm management deals with processes which aim at improving the quality and quantity of milk production. Milk production is primarily dependent on choosing improved cattle breeds, provision of proper feed for cattle, maintaining proper shelter facilities, and regular cleaning of cattle. Choosing improved cattle breeds is an important factor of cattle management. Hybrid cattle breeds are produced for improved productivity.

Therefore, it is essential that hybrid cattle breeds should have a combination of various desirable genes such as high milk production and high resistance to diseases. Cattle should also be given healthy and nutritious food consisting of roughage, fibre concentrates, and high levels of proteins and other nutrients. Cattle’s should be housed in proper cattle-houses and should be kept in well ventilated roofs to prevent them from harsh weather conditions such as heat, cold, and rain. Regular baths and proper brushing should be ensured to control diseases. Also, time-to-time check ups by a veterinary doctor for symptoms of various diseases should be undertaken.

Q3. What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal breeding?

Answer: A breed is a special variety of animals within a species. It is similar in most characters such as general appearance, size, configuration, and features with other members of the same species. Jersey and Brown Swiss are examples of foreign breeds of cattle.
Objectives of animal breeding:

(i) To increase the yield of animals.
(ii) To improve the desirable qualities of the animal produce.
(iii) To produce disease-resistant varieties of animals.

Q4. Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which of the methods is best? Why?

Answer: Animal breeding is producing improved breeds of domesticated animals by improving their genotypes through selective mating. There are two methods of animal breeding, natural breeding which includes inbreeding, out-breeding, cross-breeding, out-crossing, etc., and artificial breeding which involves artificial insemination and multiple ovulation embryo transfer technology (MOET). It involves inseminating the native cows with the semen of superior bulls of exotic or indigenous breeds. Artificial breeding is the best method of breeding because of the following reasons:

  • The semen of desired bulls is collected under hygienic conditions, preserved, and sent to all insemination centres throughout the country.
  • Semen collected from one bull can be used to inseminate many cows as fewer sperms are required to achieve conception when semen is deposited artificially. Hence, artificial insemination is very economical.
  • It is healthier as the spread of sexually transmitted diseases can be controlled by this technique.

Q5. What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?

Answer: Apiculture is the practice of bee-keeping for the production of various products such as honey, bee’s wax, etc. Honey is a highly nutritious food source and is used as an indigenous system of medicines. It is useful in the treatment of many disorders such as cold, flu, and dysentery. Other commercial products obtained from honey bees include bee’s wax and bee pollen. Bee’s wax is used for making cosmetics, polishes, and is even used in several medicinal preparations. Therefore, to meet the increasing demand of honey, people have started practicing bee-keeping on a large scale. It has become an income generating activity for farmers since it requires a low investment and is labour intensive.

Q6. Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.

Answer: Fishery is an industry which deals with catching, processing, and marketing of fishes and other aquatic animals that have a high economic value. Some commercially important aquatic animals are prawns crabs, oysters, lobsters, and octopus. Fisheries play an important role in the Indian economy. This is because a large part of the Indian population is dependent on fishes as a source of food, which is both cheap and high in animal protein. A Fishery is an employment generating industry especially for people staying in the coastal areas. Both fresh water fishes (such as Catla, Rohu, etc) and marine fishes (such as tuna, mackerel pomfret, etc.) are of high economic value.

Q7. Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.

Answer: Plant breeding is defined as the process of changing select traits in order to bring about desired characteristics. It is primarily used for improving the nutritional value of plants. Following are the steps observed in plant breeding:

  • Accumulation of genetic variability
  • Germplasm evaluation & parent selection
  • Cross hybridisation of selected parents
  • Choosing superior hybrids
  • Testing viability of new cultivars

Q8. Explain what is meant by biofortification.

Answer: Enhancement of nutritional quality of a crop by improving the content and quality of protein, fats, vitamins, minerals and micronutrient is called biofortification. It helps to improve public health.

Q9. Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?

Answer: The apical and axillary meristems of plants are the best parts of the plant to make virus-free plants. This is because rate of division of meristematic cell is higher than rate of multiplication of virus and viruses are unable to invade newly formed meristematic cells. Hence, meristematic cells are free of virus although the whole plant is infected with virus. With the use of meristem, a healthy plant can be recovered from the diseased plant through micropropagation method.

Q10. What is the major advantage of producing plants by micropropagation?

Answer: Micropropagation is a method of producing new plants in a short duration using plant tissue culture. Some major advantages of micropropagation are as follows:
(i) Micropropagation helps in the propagation of a large number of plants in a short span of time.
(ii) The plants produced are identical to the mother plant
(iii) It leads to the production of healthier plantlets, which exhibit better disease-resisting powers.

Q11. Find out what the various components of the medium used for propagation of an explant in vitro are?

Answer: The major components of medium used for propagation of explants in vitro are carbon sources such as sucrose, inorganic salts, vitamins, amino acids, water, agar-agar, and certain growth hormones such as auxins and gibberellins.

Q12. Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India.

Answer:

Crop plantHybrid variety
Wheat
Rice
Cauliflower
Cowpea
Mustard
Sonalika and kalian sona
Jaya and Ratna
Pusa shubra and Pusa snowball K-1
Pusa komal
Pusa swarnim

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