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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter wise
Q1. How has colonialism impacted our lives? You can either focus on one aspect like culture or politics or treat them together.
Answer: Many modern ideas and institutions reached India through colonialism. It is also because such an exposure to modern ideas was contradictory or paradoxical. For example Indians in the colonial period read about western liberalism and freedom. Yet they lived under a western, colonial rule that denied Indians liberty and freedom.
Our social reform and nationalist movement, our laws, our political life and our Constitution, our industry and agriculture, our cities and our villages have been shaped by our paradoxical experience with colonialism. This has had lasting implications for our specific experience with modernity.
Colonialism brought into being new political, economic and social structural changes.
British colonialism was based on a capitalist system that directly interfered to ensure greatest profit and benefit to British capitalism. Every policy was geared towards the strengthening and expansion of British capitalism.
It changed not just land ownership laws but decided even what crops ought to be grown and what ought not to be. Colonialism also led to considerable movement of people. It led to movement of people from one part to another within India.
Colonialism introduced a wide array of changes in every sphere, be it legal or cultural or architectural. Colonialism was a story apart in the very scale and intensity of the changes that it brought about. Some of these changes were deliberate while some took place in an unintended fashion.
Q2. Industrialisation and urbanisation are linked processes. Discuss.
- Industrialisation refers to the emergence of machine production, based on the use of inanimate power resources like steam or electricity.
- A prime feature of industrial societies is that a large number of people are employed in factories, offices or shops rather than agriculture.
- Over 90% people are living in cities and towns where most jobs are to be found and new job opportunities are created e.g. in Britain the first society to undergo industrialisation was also the earliest to move from being rural to an urban community.
-During British period industrialisation in some regions had led to decline of old urban centres.
- The process of urbanisation during the colonial period caused decline of earlier urban centres and the emergence of new colonial cities e.g. cities like Surat and Masulipatnam lost their charm and Bombay and Madras emerged as important cities.
- When manufacturing units boomed in Britain, traditional export of cotton and silk manufactures of India declined because they could not compete to Manchester.
- At the end of 19th century, with the development of mechanised factory industrialisation, few towns became heavily populated.
- Other than eastern India where British penetration was earliest and deepest, survived much more longer e.g. village crafts in the interior could survive. They were affected only with the spread of railways.
- The government of India after Independence played significant role in protecting and promoting industrialisation.
- Because of recent policies related to liberalisation and globalisation led to vast expansion of cities.
Q3. Identify any town or city with which you are familiar. Find out both the history of its growth and its contemporary status.
Answer: Do Yourself
Q4. You may be living in a very small town, may be in a very big city, a semi urban settlement or a village.
(i) Describe the place where you live.
(ii) What are the features, which make you think it is a town and not a city, a village and not a town, or a city and not a village?
(iii) Is there any factory where you live?
(iv) Is agriculture the main job that people do?
(v) Is it the occupational nature that has a determining influence?
(vi) Is it the buildings?
- Is it the availability of educational opportunities?
- Is it the way people live and behave?
- Is it the way people talk and dress?
Answer: Do it Yourself
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