We have Provided the NCERT/CBSE Solutions chapter-wise for Class 12 English Vista Chapter 4 The Enemy with Answers by expert subject teacher for latest syllabus and examination. Students also can take a free NCERT Solutions of The Enemy. Each question has right answer Solved by Expert Teacher.
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Q1. Who was Dr Sadao? Where was his house?
Answer: Dr Sadao was a famous Japanese surgeon and a scientist. He was perfecting a discovery which would render wounds entirely clean. His house was located next to a narrow beach. The beach was outlined with bent pines. A little uninhabited island also existed near his house. In storm, it had been submerged. A mile or two on either side of the house was a fishing village, but near his house, there existed only the bare and lonely coast, dangerous with rocks. The water beyond the beach was spiked with rocks.
Q2. Will Dr Sadao be arrested on the charge of harbouring an enemy?
Answer: Dr Sadao knew that they would be arrested if they sheltered a white man in their house. The wounded man was a prisoner of war who had escaped with a bullet on his back. Since Japan was at war with America, harbouring an enemy meant being a traitor to Japan. Dr Sadao could be arrested if anyone complained against him and accused him of harbouring an enemy.
Q3. Will Hana help the wounded man and wash him herself?
Answer: The wounded American was in a very bad state and needed to be washed before being operated on. Hana did not want Dr Sadao to clean the dirty and unconscious prisoner, and so asked their servant, Yumi, to do so. However, Yumi defied her master’s order and opted out of it. As a result, Hana had no other option but to wash him herself. Although this act was impulsive and dipped in a sense of superiority over her servant, Yumi, she did it with sincerity.
Q4. What will Dr Sadao and his wife do with the man?
Answer: Dr Sadao operated the wounded man. The operation was successful. Dr Sadao knew that the wounded man would now be out of danger. So he and his wife decided to give him to the police as a prisoner of war. However, the man was very weak. Thus, they decided to keep him till he recovered, so that later they could decide, what to do with him.
Page No: 47
Reading with insight
Q1. There are moments in life when we have to make hard choices between our roles as private individuals and as citizens with a sense of national loyalty? Discuss with reference to the story you have just read.
Answer: Very often there appear moments in our life when it really becomes difficult to choose between our roles loyal citizens since nation is a necessity like bread. But as an individual we are compelled with the feeling of humanity and compassion Dr. Sadao is confronted with such conflicting realities of life. As a doctor he is trained and duty bound morally to save life. He is put in a tantalising situation. He is in a fix if he should hand over the prisoner of war to the Army as a patriot or he should save his life as a true and faithful doctor. Keeping everything in mind, Dr. Sadao prepares himself to save his enemy soldier.
At that time Japan is at war with America. During his training in America he has seen the unpleasant experiences of racial discrimination among the whites. He is full of patriotic feelings and is not in a mood to ignore his duties as a doctor. A doctor never considers whether the affected person is an enemy or a friend. He is taught to save the life of a dying man. Thus Sadao’s professional loyalty comes in conflict with a sense of national loyalty. His servents leave and the maid servant Yumi revolts. But he puts his life in danger. As the milk of humanity is flowing in his blood so he saves the enemy and helps him in escaping to freedom.
Q2. Dr Sadao was compelled by his duty as a doctor to help the enemy soldier. What made Hana, his wife, sympathetic to him in the face of open defiance from the domestic staff?
Answer: Dr Sadao and Hana knew that their decision to save the enemy soldier would be questioned by everyone. However, they firmly followed their sense of duty. For Dr Sadao this sense of duty came from the profession he was in; but for Hana, the duty was purely humanitarian. From bearing the unrest in her domestic staff to being forced to do all the chores of house-hold herself, she does all with grace and dignity. Hana’s loving, considerate and sympathetic nature shines out. She washed and fed the soldier although it was not her job. Her care helped recuperate the soldier fast. It is also apparent from the story that she respected her husband, and as a sense of duty towards him, did the needful. This explains why she, even after feeling sick, comes back to the room and readily does whatever is told by her husband during the operation.
Q3. How would you explain the reluctance of the soldier to leave the shelter of the doctor’s home even when he knew he couldn’t stay there without risk to the doctor and himself?
Answer: When the American prisoner of war came to consciousness and realized he ‘d been saved by a Japanese family, he feared he ‘d be handed over to the army soon. But when he remembered how much love and care the family had given him, he realized he was in safe hands. He knew that while he was a threat to the family of the doctor there could be saved his own life. Ultimately, burdened with gratitude to the family, he agrees to comply with what the doctor has decided for him-the escape.
Q4. What explains the attitude of the General in the matter of the enemy soldier? Was it human consideration, lack of national loyalty, dereliction of duty or simply self-absorption?
Answer: The General can be called the most cunning, ruthless and a self-absorbed person. Dr. Sadao has told everything to him about the soldier enemy. He has revealed his operation, treatment and sheltering at his house as well. Dr. Sadao is well aware about this favour and the legal punishment that he can be met with. Instead of taking any action against Dr. Sadao. the General advises him that he has his private assassins to kill the American soldier. He even promises him to send them so that Dr. Sadao may get rid of the wounded enemy but he fails to fulfil his promise.
In the true sense, the General knows that Dr. Sadao is a skilled doctor perfect in the art of surgery. He has himself to be operated the next day. So his death will be a personal loss to his life. He does not want to take further risk about his life. Hence he does not intend to take any action against Dr. Sadao. In this way it is his personal consideration that outweighs all other considerations. He cannot allow anything to happen to Sadao. In a way the General compromises with the national security by not initiating any proceeding against the enemy.
Being a General and loyal to his country, he should have arrested the prisoner of war. But to save himself, he hushes the matter and goes on sleeping over the facts. So the General is surely a self-absorbed person.
Q5. While hatred against a member of the enemy race is justifiable, especially during wartime, what makes a human being rise above narrow prejudices?
Answer: Sadao had grown up believing that the Japanese were a superior race. He also disliked Americans as his own experience in America had not been pleasant. He had faced racial bias. He thought Americans were full of prejudice. Despite this, he couldn’t let the young American soldier bleed to death. While his logic and reasoning revolted against saving his ‘enemy’, his inherent humanity won over. Humanity and compassion often tide over hatred and prejudice.
Sadao was a fine example of how his patriotic and parochial attitude acted as a constant voice of conscience. He, however, was led by the superior feelings of compassion and humanity. As a doctor, he valued his promise to help any fellow human and he failed to compromise on his personal and professional ethics.
Q6. Do you think the doctor’s final solution to the problem was the best possible one in the circumstances?
Answer: The doctor tried his best to save the injured soldier as a part of his duty. But the ultimate question was what to do next. It cannot be said that he betrayed his country as he told the truth to the General. However, when he noticed that the soldier was to be killed not for the benefit of the country but only to save the doctor’s life, he decided to help him flee.
Dr Sadao’s final decision was the best possible solution in the present circumstances. The secret that he was sheltering an enemy in his house was already out. The loyal servants of the household had gone. They knew everything. Every moment was filled with tension. So, Dr Sadao thought of a plan and discussed it with the prisoner. It was a loyal escape plan.
Q7. Does the story remind you of ‘Birth’ by A. J. Cronin that you read in ‘Snapshots’ last year? What are the similarities?
Answer: Yes, the story ‘The Enemy’ by Pearl S. Buck certainly reminds us of the story ‘Birth’ by A. J. Cronin. Both the stories have certain obvious similarities. Both the stories revolve around the protagonist who is a doctor. Both of them focus on the doctor’s devotion and dedication to his duty and his concern for the well-being of his patient. The doctor sacrifices his own rest and comfort while attending to the patient. If the doctor brings a ‘still-born’ baby back to life in the story ‘Birth’, Dr Sadao Hoki performs no less a miracle. He saves an almost dying man from the jaws of death by skilfully extracting the bullet from his body and giving him medicines and injections for quick relief.
Dr Sadao runs a greater risk than Dr Andrew Mason. While the former could be arrested on the charge of harbouring an enemy and condemned to death, the latter (Dr Andrew) was foregoing rest and staking his reputation as a medical practitioner. He had had a disappointing evening with Christine, the girl he loves, but he forgets his personal feelings and concentrates on the safe delivery of child and then of reviving the middle-aged mother and the still-born child. Similarly, Dr Sadao is dedicated to his patient and his problems. He forgets everything while concentrating on the operation. His servants have defied him for sheltering an enemy and run away. His wife, Hana, has to do menial jobs while attending to the patient and her retching disturbs him. Her distress and his inability to attend to her make him impatient and irritable, but he does not desert the man who is under his knife. To conclude, we may say that the zeal, dedication and efforts of both the doctors are similar. There is difference of degree in the risk factor, but their devotion to suffering humanity is undoubtedly of the same kind.
Q8. Is there any film you have seen or novel you have read with a similar theme?
Answer: The ‘Enemy’ tale is based on the foundations of selflessness, sense of duty, compassion, and generosity. Numerous films and novels were based on this theme. One such example is the movie ‘My Name is Khan’ where the protagonist goes to flooded Georgia with a sense of duty and generosity to save the lives of his friends, Mama Jenny, Joel, and other natives. He works selflessly to save the city, without thinking twice about the potential dangers to his own life.
Extra Questions of The Enemy
Q1. In what context does Hana remember General Takima? What does she infer?
Answer: General Takima was a ruthless despot. At home he beat his wife cruelly. No one mentioned it now because he had won a victory in a battle in Manchuria. Hana remembers him in the context of the sufferings of the prisoners of war. She infers that if a man (like General Takima) could be so cruel to a woman in his power, he would be quite cruel to a prisoner. The deep red scars on the white man’s neck confirmed her apprehension.
Q2. Why did Dr Sadao take the man in and save him?
Answer: Dr Sadao was a patriot to the core. The man, an American, was his enemy. Obviously, he did not want to save him. However, the man was wounded. Being a doctor, it was Sadao’s sacred duty to save his life, if he could. He was trained not to let a man die, if he could help him. Obviously, Dr Sadao had to choose between his role as a private individual and as a citizen with a sense of national commitment. Dr Sadao took the man in and operated on him. He took care of the man and kept him in his house till the prisoner was on the path of recovery.
Q3. What was the General’s plan to do away with the soldier?
Answer: The General suggested that it would be best if he could be quietly killed, by someone who did not know him. For this, he planned to send his private assassins to the doctor’s house at night. He wanted the doctor to leave the outer partition of the white man’s room open, to provide an easy access to the soldier.
Q4. After giving first aid to the soldier, why did Dr. Sadao and Hana want to throw him back into the sea?
Answer: After giving first aid to the enemy soldier, Dr. Sadao and his wife Hana wanted to throw him back into the sea. It was because the enemy’s presence in the house would lead to them death penalty. They would be called traitors. It was illegal to save and shelter an enemy in the house.
Q5. How did the gardener react when Dr. Sadao told him about the wounded American soldier?
Answer: Old gardner was a person of superstitions. He wanted that the white man should die. First he was shot and then he was caught in the sea. The gardner believed that American soldier had a fate of death.
Q6. What made a cool surgeon (like Dr Sadao) speak sharply to his wife? How did she react to his command?
Answer: The sight of blood made Hana choke. Her face turned pale. She had never seen an operation. Dr Sadao spoke sharply and asked her not to faint. He did not put down his exploring instrument. He argued that if he stopped then the man would surely die. Hana clapped her hands to her mouth, leaped up and ran out of the room. He heard her retching in the garden. But he went on with his work.
Q7. But Sadao searching the spot of black in the twilight sea that night, had his reward”. What was the reward?
Answer: ‘The reward’ was the escape of the enemy. Despite all moral dilemma, Dr Sadao listens to his heart every time and takes the right decision and his wife, Hana gently follows him. At last, the General forgets to keep his promise, which gives Sadao an opportunity ‘ to reconsider his decision. He gives the soldier a boat, food, bottled water and quilts, and asks him to wait for a Korean fishing boat to escape. Dr Sadao searched the spot of black in the twilight sea that night to see if the man was still there, but there was no light. Obviously the man had gone.
Q8. What was the American prisoner’s first reaction on regaining consciousness? How did Hana reassure him?
Answer: When the wounded soldier awoke, he was weak, and his blue eyes were terrified when he perceived where he was. Hana felt compelled to apologize. She begged him not to be afraid. She knelt and fed him gently with the porcelain spoon. He ate unwillingly.
Q9. Why did the messenger come to Dr. Sadao? What did Hana think about it?
Answer: The general was very ill. He was in pain and required medical treatment immediately. He had faith only in Sadao’s medical capabilities. With his orders, the messenger came to Dr. Sadao. Hana thought that the general would penalise her husband for giving shelter to an enemy.
Q10. How did Hana wash the wounded man?
Answer: First, Hana untied the knotted rugs that kept the white man covered. When she had his breast bare, she dipped a small clean towel into the steaming hot water and washed his face carefully. She kept on washing him until his upper body was quite clean. But she dared not turn him over for fear of the wound.
Q11. Why does Dr Sadao mutter the words ‘My friend’ while treating the American prisoner of war? What is ironical about his words?
Answer: Dr Sadao was trained to address patients as friends. Therefore, he utters the words ‘My friend’ while treating the American prisoner of war. However, it was ironical, since the patient was from an enemy nation.
Q12. Why did Hana come behind Sadao when he went out of the room quickly?
Answer: Hana did not wish to be left alone with the white man. He was the first she had seen since she left America. He seemed to have nothing to do with those whom she had known there. Here he was her enemy, a menace, living or dead.
Q13. What forced Dr Sadao to be impatient and irritable with his patient?
Answer: Sadao heard Hana vomiting in the garden. The distress and inability to go out to her at once made him impatient and irritable with his patient. He was faced with the dilemma of whether he was doing the right thing in treating the patient who had caused so much inconvenience.
Q14. Write down the reactions of the two servants and Yumi when they were told about the wounded soldier.
Answer: When Dr. Sadao told his servants about the enemy soldier, they were frightened. They thought that the enemy must die. They were reluclant to let the white man first be shot and then caught by the sea and tortured by the rocks. In case Sadao saved him, the rocks would avenge. But the master did not change his decision. They showed their resentment and threatened to leave. Ultimately, they left Dr. Sadao’s house.
Q15. What solution did Hana offer to resolve Sadao’s predicament?
Answer: Hana found that neither of them could throw the white man back into the sea. There was only one thing to do. They must carry the man into their house. They must tell the servants that they intended to hand him over to the police. She reminded her husband of his position and children. It would endanger all of them if they did not give that man over as a prisoner of war.
Q16. Why did Hana wash the wounded soldier herself?
Answer: Hana, wife of Dr Sadao, washed the wounds of the American prisoner of war herself because the domestic servants refused to do it as he was from an enemy country. They all left the doctor’s house.
Q17. In what condition was the American soldier, when he was brought to the coast by the sea waves?
Answer: The American soldier was wounded. He was very weak and pale. He had a wound of a gun and had the bullet stuck in his wound. His face looked tortured and his back was stained with blood flowing from the wound. The wound was black and was also stuck by the rocks. He was almost at the verge of death if Sadao had not saved him.
Q18. How can you say that Sadao’s head and hands worked in different directions?
Answer: Sadao’s head told him to put the man back into the sea as he was an American soldier-an enemy of Japan. His trained hands seemed, of their own will, to be doing what they could to stanch the fearful bleeding. He packed the wound with the sea-moss that strewed the beach. The bleeding was stopped for the moment.
Q19. Why did the messenger come to Dr Sadao? What did Hana think about it?
Answer: Dr Sadao had been summoned to the palace to treat the ailing General. This relieved Hana, since she expected it to be a punishment for helping and providing refuge to an enemy. As the General was ill, he could require an operation any moment. Hana got very anxious to think about the consequences her family might have to face for harbouring an enemy soldier. When an official in uniform knocked her door, she thought that he might have come to apprehend her husband.
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